NATIONAL ACTION PROGRAM ON CLIMATE CHANGE
- National Action Program On Climate Change............................. 31
- First Phase Implementation Plan of the National Action
Program on Climate Change.................................................... 49
RESOLUTION OF THE STATE GREAT KHURAL OF MONGOLIA
06 Feb 2011 No 02 State Building, Ulaanbaatar city
Approval of the National Action Program on Climate Change
The State Great Khural (Parliament) of Mongolia has issued this resolution, referring to part 43.1, item 43 of Mongolian Parliament Law:
- To approve the National Action Program on Climate Change, attached, to be implemented within the framework of the Millennium Development Goals-based Comprehensive National Development Strategy.
- The Government of Mongolia /S.Batbold/ shall be in charge of developing an action plan for the implementation of the National Action Program on Climate Change, by organizing its implementation through economic and social development objectives, and including related expenses in the annual state budget.
SPEAKER OF THE STATE GREAT
KHURAL OF MONGOLIA D. DEMBEREL
Attachment to Mongolian Parliament Resolution No.02, February 2011
NATIONAL ACTION PROGRAM ON CLIMATE CHANGE One. BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION
1.1. Climate change in Mongolia and its impacts and consequences
Climate change, according to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”.
Mongolia is very sensitive to climate change because of its geographic location, fragile ecosystems and environment-weather dependent socio-economic circumstances. In the last forty years, Mongolian ecosystems have been noticeably altered by increased variability and changes in global climatic conditions. Changes that have been observed include increased desertification, more frequent droughts and dzuds (harsh winters), increased scarcity of water resources and greater biodiversity loss. These changes have follow-on consequences that negatively affect the national economy and the livelihoods of Mongolian citizens.
In Mongolia, the annual mean temperature has increased by 2.140C between 1940 and 2008. This is a much greater rate of warming than has been observed in global average temperatures, which increased by 0.740C from 1906 to 2005. Based on this comparison it is clear that climate change is occurring very intensively in Mongolia.
Deterioration of the snow caps of high mountains and thawing of permafrost have been observed. For instance, the snow covered areas of Kharkhiraa, Turgen, Munkhkhairkhan, Tsambagarav and Sair mountains decreased by 30 per cent between 1992 and 2002.
Since 1961, the annual potential evapo-transpiration rate has increased by 118.1mm and growing season precipitation has decreased by 33mm due to climate change, leading to severe aridity and desertification. Furthermore, periods of bare soil without snow or vegetation have been prolonged due to the snow cover melting up to one month earlier. As a result, soil erosion caused by wind has increased and the number of dust storm days has increased by a factor of 3 to 4 since 1960.
Hundreds of springs, ponds and lakes have dried out; pasture production has declined and biological diversity has decreased due to increased dryness. Due to pasture degradation and an increase of extreme hot days, animals can not gain enough weight and energy for growth in summer-autumn. This leads to animal weight loss and an inability for the animals to build up the necessary strength and resistance to overcome dzuds.
Greenhouse gases are natural and human caused gases in the atmosphere that absorb and emit thermal or ultraviolet radiation. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Anthropogenic climate change is predominantly caused by an increased in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere as a result of human activities.
Mongolian greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions totalled 18,868 gigagrams (Gg) carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) in 2006 and emissions net of carbon sequestration were 15,628 Gg CO2-e. 54.2 per cent of total GHG emissions were emitted by the energy sector, 34.2 per cent by agriculture and livestock and the remaining emissions are from land use, change in forest area, industry and waste sectors. In 2006 Mongolian GHG emissions per capita were higher than the global average and most other developing countries. However, GHG emissions are expected to increase due to the country’s ongoing development. Consequently, mitigation policies will be required to be implemented. For example through the development of efficient electric and thermal power generation and consumption, introduction of environmentally sound technologies, improvement of fuel efficiency, promotion of renewable energy sources and reduction of air pollution.
The frequency and magnitude of extreme climate/weather events such as drought, dzud, flood and desertification are increasing. The occurrence of other hazardous weather events such as thunder, hail, snow and dust storms, and flash floods has increased and the socio-economic losses associated with these events has roughly doubled in the last 20 years. Since 1970, about 23-30 hazardous weather events occurred, one third of these caused disastrous situations and accounted for economic losses of approximately 5-7 million USD each year.
In addition, the morbidity and mortality rates of the population have increased due to the heightened frequency of extreme weather events. Particularly, gastroenterological disorders, intoxication and cardio vascular disease have increased due to inadequate food storage conditions under warmer temperatures and frequent hot weather events. The number of cardiovascular disease incidents was around 100 and 600 per 10000 people in 1988 and 2008 respectively.
Concerns about possible threats to the economy, human health and sustainable development are being raised because of the heightened potential for an ecological catastrophe to occur caused by environmental degradation under climate change and other human activities.
1.2. Projections of future climate change and its possible impacts
The mean air temperature in Mongolia is projected to increase by 2.1-3°C by mid century and 3.1-5°C at the end of the century. This rate is 2-3 times higher than the global average temperature increase observed in the 20th Century. Summer precipitation is projected to increase by 6-15 per cent to 2030. Winter precipitation is projected to increase by 7-15 per cent up to 2050 and by 50 per cent after 2050.
According to scientific estimations, warming is expected to intensify aridity and desertification and evapo-transpiration may increase at a rate 6-10 times faster than precipitation changes. Accordingly, it is estimated with high probability that mountain glaciers with a depth of around 50 meters in Tsambagarav will completely melt by 2040, glaciers with a depth of 100 meters will completely melt by 2050-2060, and those with a depth of around 200 meters will completely melt by 2070-2080. The volume of water in rivers originating from the Altai and Kangai mountain ranges are projected to increase in the first half of the century but then decrease as the glaciers decline.
Pastoral livestock production is expected to be challenged by hot and dry weather in the summer and greater risks of dzuds and increased snow falls in the winter. Wheat yields are projected to fall by about 15 per cent in the central agricultural region over the period 2011 to 2030. Warming may lead to the spread of tropical diseases previously not observed in the country and threaten food safety and human health.
However, there may be some positive impacts arising from climate change such as a greater ability to plant warm region crops, the extension of crop land toward cold areas previously not appropriate for agriculture, shortening of the heating season for buildings and saving of electric and thermal energy, reduced need for insulation materials in construction, and a decrease in the ice season of rivers. Unfortunately, studies show that the negative impacts are expected to dominate the positive ones.
1.3. Legal rationale for the National Action Program on Climate Change
The legal rationale for the development and implementation of the National Action Program on Climate Change is established through the Constitution of Mongolia, the Concept Paper on National Security, the Millennium Development Goals-based Comprehensive Sustainable Development Strategy, the Strategy of Ecology of Mongolia, the Development Strategy of Mongolia, the National Strategy of Sustainable Development, the Strategy of Food and Agriculture, the Strategy of Herders of Mongolia and other national programs as well as international laws and conventions ratified by Mongolia such as the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, the UN Convention to Combat Desertification, and the Convention on Biological Diversity.
According to its obligations and commitments under the UNFCCC, the Mongolian Government initiated and implemented the National Action Program on Climate Change which was approved by the Government in 2000. However, the program needed to be improved by improving the links with current national economic and social strategies and policies. The program also needed to incorporate improved knowledge about climate change, lessons from global climate change experiences and extended global partnerships and mechanisms. Furthermore, a comprehensive approach to tackle climate change incorporating indicators and expected outcomes is crucial to the national program. This document outlines the revised National Action Program on Climate Change which includes these improvements.
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an instrument for achieving the goals of the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC. The CDM assists developing countries (those not listed in Annex 1 to the Convention) to achieve sustainable development objectives and to support developing countries’ contributions to the Convention.
The Millennium Development Goals-based Comprehensive National Development Strategy of Mongolia was approved by the Parliament of Mongolia on 12 February 2008. Priority Area 5 of the strategy states that “to create a sustainable environment for development by promoting capacities and measures on adaptation to climate change, halting imbalances in the country’s ecosystems and protecting them”, this statement is the basic rationale for the development of the’ National Action Program on Climate Change.
Adaptation to climate change is the process of natural and human systems adapting to changing environmental and climatic conditions. It includes measures taken by natural and anthropogenic systems in order to reduce the potential harm caused by climate change or to maximize the positive impacts of current and expected climate change.
Adapting to climate change and mitigation strategies ensure sustainable development and efficient economic growth, reduce negative impacts on the environment, reduce degradation and pollution, and are key elements of ‘green growth’ strategies.
TWO. GOALS, STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES, IMPLEMENTATION PERIOD, PHASES AND PRINCIPLES OF NAPCC
2.1. Goals of the program
The goals of the program are to ensure environmental sustainability, development of socio- economic sectors adapted to climate change, reduction of vulnerabilities and risks, and mitigation of GHG emissions as well as promoting economic effectiveness and efficiency and implementation of ‘green growth’ policies.
The implementation of the NAPCC to 2021 will help Mongolia create the capacity to adapt to climate change and establish a foundation for green economic growth and development.
2.2. Strategic objectives of the program
In order to achieve the goal, the following strategic objectives have been defined:
2.2.1. Set the legal environment, structure, institutional and management frameworks for addressing on climate change.
2.2.2. Ensure environmental sustainability is maintained and reduce socio-economic vulnerabilities and risks through strengthening the national climate change adaptation capacity
2.2.3. Mitigate GHG emissions and establish a low carbon economy through the introduction of environmentally friendly technologies and improvement in energy effectiveness and efficiency
2.2.4. Enhance the national climate observation, research and monitoring network and strengthen employees’ capacity
2.2.5. Conduct public awareness campaigns and support citizen and community participation in actions against climate change
2.3. Implementation period and phases of the program
The National Action Program on Climate Change will be implemented in two phases over the period from 2011 to 2021.
2.3.1. In the first phase (2011-2016), national mitigation and adaptation capacity will be strengthened; legal environment, structure, institutional and management system will be set-up; and community and public awareness and participation in climate change activities will be improved.
2.3.2. In the second phase (2017-2021), climate change adaptation measures will be implemented and GHG mitigation actions will commence.
2.4. Implementation principles
The NAPCC will be implemented in line with the following principles:
2.4.1. Maintain consistency with the National Security Strategy, sustainable development practices, green economic growth and development goals
2.4.2. Align with other policies to maintain environmental sustainability, reduce pollution, alleviate poverty and ensure the population is safe and healthy
2.4.3. Introduce increasingly advanced scientific and environmentally sound techniques and technologies in GHG mitigation and climate change adaptation actions, and also synchronize these with traditional practices and culture
2.4.4. Maintain international and regional partnerships and cooperation
2.4.5. Ensure cooperation between government and business; secure community and individual participation in the program; improve the integration of central and local government activities; and increase integration between economic sectors
2.4.6. Ensure justice, transparency, human rights and gender equality are upheld in the implementation of the program.
THREE. IMPLEMENTATION ACTIVITIES OF THE PROGRAM
The following activities will be carried out in phases in order to fulfil the objectives of the program.
3.1. Strategic objective 1 – Set legal environment, structure, institutional and management system that responding climate change issues”:
In the all phases (2011-2021)
3.1.1. Make amendments to existing laws and regulations, such as the ‘Environment Protection Law’, the ‘Monitoring of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environment Law’, the ‘Energy Law’, the ‘Disaster Protection Law’, the ‘Construction Law’, the ‘Renewable Energy Law’, the ‘Water Law’, and the ‘Forest Law’, that are favourable to GHG mitigation and climate change adaptation activities.
3.1.2. Pass new laws supporting coordinated pasture utilization, soil protection, energy saving measures, improvement of energy efficiency, green development, and measures combating climate change.
3.1.3. To create a legal environment for including basic data in the national statistics this will be used for creating the national GHG inventory.
3.1.4. Establish independent audit systems to monitor power generation, energy consumption, and construction and insulation quality.
3.1.5. Set new standards for electric and thermal energy use, water saving, waste water re-use and processing. (Set and adhere new standards on saving electric, thermal energy and water use as well as waste recycling.)
3.1.6. Set up an institution with responsibilities to coordinate inter-sectoral issues related to addressing to climate change.
3.1.7. Develop regulations, policies and measures relevant to the implementation of the CDM.
3.2. Strategic objective 2- “Ensure environmental sustainability and reduce socio- economic vulnerabilities and risks through strengthening the national climate change adaptive capacity”:
In the first phase (2011-2016):
3.2.1. Develop early warning, disaster response and public awareness systems for human health risks and natural disasters induced by climate change;
3.2.2. Set up integrated water management plans for river basins and up-stream areas;
3.2.3. Establish advanced technical and economic capacity to improve water efficiency and re-use of waste water;
3.2.4. Extend water reservoirs and basin constructions for harvesting of river, precipitation and snow melt water;
3.2.5. Assess water resources in the most vulnerable regions and coordinate development strategies and policies;
3.2.6. Enhance management systems for natural forest conservation and implement key ecological restoration programs in response to climate change;
3.2.7. Enhance carbon sequestration capacities and improve afforestation campaigns in urban areas;
3.2.8. Introduce advanced techniques and technologies for tree breeding and implement projects and programs in cooperation with international and local organizations aimed to expand nation-wide tree-planting and the green belt zone;
3.2.9. Reduce land degradation and desertification, and increase the carbon sequestration potential of pasture and soils;
3.2.10. Develop solutions to protect shrubs and bush species, such as saxaul (haloxylon ammodendron), by improving household fuel supply systems in the steppe and desert regions;
3.2.11. Implement special projects and measures intended to protect and conserve biological diversity and support climate change adaptation in special protected areas;
3.2.12. Conduct measures to reduce livestock vulnerability and risks;
3.2.13. Extend irrigated agriculture through the use of drought resistant crops, and water saving and soil protection technologies;
3.2.14. Implement projects and programs in order to improve human livelihoods, reduce poverty and build up new green workplaces;
3.2.15. Strengthen early warning and prevention systems for natural disasters;
In the second phase (2017-2021):
3.2.16. Establish water reservoirs on rivers in the Arctic Ocean Basin and in glacial areas;
3.2.17. Extend the establishment of water ponds that harvest snow and rain water;
3.2.18. Conduct integrated water management including in major river basins;
3.2.19. Maintain comprehensive protection of the forest resource, establish forest nursery and restoration activities and increase carbon sequestration capacity;
3.2.20. Reinforce measures against land degradation and desertification;
3.2.21. Enhance activities for the protection of biodiversity and support adaptation to climate change in local protected areas;
3.2.22. Implement enduring policies for livestock management adapted to climate change;
3.2.23. Extend irrigated agriculture through the use of drought resistant crops, and water saving and soil protection technologies;
3.2.24. Strengthen early warning systems for natural disasters;
3.2.25. Construct canals to manage flood waters and develop water re-use technologies.
3.3. Strategic objective 3 - “Mitigate GHG emissions and establish a low carbon economy through the introduction of environmentally friendly technologies and improvement in energy effectiveness and efficiency”:
In the first phase (2011-2016):
3.3.1. Reduce internal fuel consumption of electric and heat power generators;
3.3.2. Increase efficiency of energy transfer and distribution;
3.3.3. Establish a renewable energy fund;
3.3.4. Develop wind and solar energy production systems;
3.3.5. Supply renewable energy generators to soum centers (smallest administrative unit of Government in Mongolia) and settlements that are not connected to the central electricity network;
3.3.6. Conduct a pilot study into, and introduce, geothermal power exploitation technologies;
3.3.7. Conduct technological research and development into the utilization of methane gas from underground mining;
3.3.8. Introduce and disseminate improved technology for coal processing and clean fuel processing in local areas;
3.3.9. Develop advanced technologies for, and increase the use of, organic waste processing and production of liquid and gas fuels;
3.3.10. Introduce automatic heat regulators in building heating systems of Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan and Erdenet cities and implement the first stage of providing urban users with electricity meters;
3.3.11. Limit incandescent light bulb usage;
3.3.12. Develop technologies for dry (lower emission) cement production;
3.3.13. Prioritise road construction projects that connect to the international road network;
3.3.14. Improve urban road traffic management and reduce traffic congestion;
3.3.15. Expand the railway network in the Gobi desert and the eastern part of the country and restrict the usage of haulage trucks;
3.3.16. Increase hydrogen and hybrid fuel use in vehicles and encourage low fuel consumption cars;
3.3.17. Extend the number of buses and trolleybuses used for public transportation in cities;
3.3.18. Install insulation in buildings with high thermal loss in Ulaanbaatar and take other measures to reduce the rate of heat transfer;
3.3.19. Improve land use efficiency, increase re-use of abandoned crop lands, impede cultivation of wilderness and expand mining rehabilitation efforts;
3.3.20. Conduct forestation and reforestation activities, expand green compounds and increase carbon sequestration;
3.3.21. Protect forests from harmful insects, ban illegal logging and implement measures against forest resource depletion;
3.3.22. Build solid waste power plants.
In the second phase (2017-2021):
3.3.23. Convert Ulaanbaatar Power Plant-3 and Darkhan Power Plant to high efficiency electric power generation technology;
3.3.24. Set up heat supply systems in aimag centers with highly efficient and environmentally sound power generators;
3.3.25. Meet energy needs of soum centers and settlements that are not able to be connected to the central electricity network using renewable energy generators;
3.3.26. Exploit solar and geothermal energy and bio gas in the heating of private houses and supplying hot water;
3.3.27. Expand hydro power generation and usage and increase construction of hydro power plants in appropriate places;
3.3.28. Explore possibilities to build large scale power and thermal plants using solar power in the Gobi region;
3.3.29. Expand research on nuclear power generators;
3.3.30. Set up integrated gasification combine cycle plants;
3.3.31. Build coalmine methane gas power plants for electricity generation;
3.3.32. Expand the liquid gas distribution network;
3.3.33. Supply clean coal to households for consumption in urban Ger districts;
3.3.34. Continue the introduction of automatic heat regulators in building heating system in Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan and Erdenet and complete the provision of electricity meters to all urban users;
3.3.35. Limit incandescent light bulbs usage;
3.3.36. Begin initial research into building an underground metro in Ulaanbaatar;
3.3.37. Initiate a shift from diesel or steam railways to electric rail;
3.3.38. Innovate enhanced insulation materials for buildings using nanotechnology;
3.3.39. Improve tree nurseries, restrict forest logging for household consumption, increase forestation and reforestation activities and increase green spaces in urban areas;
3.3.40. Introduce technologies for producing gas and other fuels using sewage mud from waste water treatment plants.
3.4. Strategic objective 4 – “Enhance the national climate observation, research and monitoring network and strengthen employees’ capacity”
In the first phase (2011-2016):
3.4.1. Enhance monitoring systems of hydrology and meteorology and upgrade equipment and facilities;
3.4.2. Establish forest fire inspection sites in special protected areas;
3.4.3. Set up observation and monitoring systems for ecosystems in special protected areas;
3.4.4. Set up glacier, permafrost and desertification monitoring sites based on the existing hydrological and meteorological observation network;
3.4.5. Reinstate and expand surface and ground water monitoring networks;
3.4.6. Set up a monitoring system for potential tropical disease vectors and transmitters such as mosquitoes, other insects and rodents that may arise due to warming;
3.4.7. Carry out and update climate change impact assessments every 3-5 years;
3.4.8. Conduct research on plant and animal species that are resistant and adaptable to climate change;
3.4.9. Conduct quantitative inventories of GHG emissions and sinks in Mongolia;
3.4.10. Periodically update impact and risk assessments of climate change on the environment and socio-economic sectors;
3.4.11. Define detailed adaptation options by economic sector, identify associated expenses and potential effectiveness and put the options into practice.
In the second phase (2017-2021):
3.4.12. Improve the quality and concentration of meteorological stations to meet World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards;
3.4.13. Employ super computers in long term weather forecasting and climate prediction;
3.4.14. Establish a Doppler radar weather network throughout the country;
3.4.15. Enhance studies of climate change resistant and adaptable plant and animal species.
3.5. Strategic objective 5- “Conduct public awareness campaigns and support citizen and community participation in actions against climate change”:
All phases (2011-2021):
3.5.1. Publish books, guidelines, handouts and other materials about climate change mitigation and adaptation;
3.5.2. Disseminate information about policies, decisions of the government, science and advanced technologies to public;
3.5.3. Include courses about climate change, sustainable development and the green economy in all levels of school curriculums;
3.5.4. Develop educational curriculums and define new profession indexes and classifications related to climate change and environmental sectors;
3.5.5. Conduct training and increase awareness about first aid during weather hazards and natural disasters;
3.5.6. Establish local citizen and partnership based community groups for responding to natural disasters;
3.5.7. Encourage individuals, community groups, non government organizations and companies to take actions in response to climate change, run ‘green’ businesses, and support the consumption of ‘green’ products;
3.5.8. Promote participation of, and partnership between, individuals, community groups, NGOs, business organizations and women in international and regional activities and forums;
3.5.9. Implement projects and programs aimed to support the livelihoods of socially vulnerable groups (ethnic minorities, female-headed households, poor families), alleviate poverty and promote green jobs;
3.5.10. Improving social responsibility of individuals, organizations and institutions.
FOUR. PROGRAM MANAGEMENT, COORDINATION AND STAKEHOLDERS
4.1. Program Management
The program implementation will be carried out by the Government body responsible for the Environment and Tourism and the unit responsible for climate change related issues. The National Climate Committee (NCC) led by the Minister for Nature, Environment and Tourism is the responsible authority in the government for climate change related issues.
In addition, central authorities responsible for finance, economy, foreign affairs, food, agriculture, industry, mineral resource, energy, transportation, construction, urban planning, health, education, culture and science relations will facilitate the implementation of measures within their own sectoral strategies and development plans. Climate change measures will also be incorporated into the Government Action Plan, the annual Socio- economic Development Plan and the state budget. Reporting on climate change measures will be to the government through the NCC.
The NCC manages nation-wide climate change related activities, coordinates sectoral integration, evaluates projects and program implementation and provides technical supervision and guidelines to stakeholders.
4.2. Stakeholders and responsibilities
The National Action Program on Climate Change (NAPCC) is a strategic policy plan based on active engagement of all stakeholders. The participation of each stakeholder (including citizens, companies, organizations, government and civil society institutions) is vital to the implementation of the program. Detailed roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder are defined below:
184.108.40.206. Change their current behaviour by protecting and preserving the environment and natural resources, reducing energy consumption, improving insulation of homes in the winter, reducing heat loss, producing less garbage, re- using waste materials, reducing excessive consumerism, using public transportation as much as possible and supporting environmentally friendly services and products;
220.127.116.11. Engage enthusiastically in actions and movements in environmental conservation, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and monitor the actions of governments and natural resource users;
18.104.22.168. Transfer and share knowledge, experience and skills about climate change mitigation and adaptation with children, family and communities;
4.2.2. Organizations and institutions
22.214.171.124. Roll out plans and strategies to introduce best practice technologies for improving efficiency in GHG emissions, energy and raw material use and producing environmentally friendly products and services;
126.96.36.199. Maintain awareness of legal responsibilities regarding environmental protection and climate change, and inform staff and colleagues of these responsibilities.
4.2.3. Civil society and non government organizations
188.8.131.52. Partner with government organizations in climate change and environmental activities and measures;
184.108.40.206. Carry out public awareness activities and increase public participation in the monitoring of natural resources users.
4.2.4. Government institutions
220.127.116.11. The central government administration authority responsible for finance and state budget will incorporate the required financial resources to implement the NAPCC into the state budget and allocate other funding such as international aid and investments;
18.104.22.168. The central government administration authority responsible for foreign affairs will engage in international dialogues and negotiations develop international and regional partnership policies, exchange research and experiences, extend external relationships and cooperation regarding the introduction of advanced low carbon and environmentally sound technologies, and build human resource capacity. The authority will also report to the government;
22.214.171.124. The central government administration authority responsible for law and justice enforces a comprehensive legal environment to support the implementation of the NAPCC and “Green Development” strategies, ensures program implementation and provides management and reports to the Government;
126.96.36.199. The central government administration authority responsible for nature and tourism will engage in international dialogues and events related to climate change, develop government policies and strategies on climate change, enforce the legal requirements for the protection, conservation and appropriate use of natural resources, improve soil, water and forest resource management, strengthen environmental monitoring networks, conduct necessary research, disseminate scientific information about the environment to individuals and institutions, implement climate change projects using internal and external funding and coordinate the actions of multiple ministries, agencies and organizations. The authority will also report to the government;
188.8.131.52. The responsible unit for climate change and The National Climate Committee (NCC) is to develop a national strategy and policy for climate change, coordinate and guide the national activities and measures across multiple sectors, secure funding sources, provide information to decision makers and the public, initiate amendments to interdisciplinary policies and strategies, develop reports and official documents according to international obligations and integrate reports of the NAPCC implementation from other agencies. The committee will also report to the government;
184.108.40.206. The responsible agency of National development and reform will ensure climate change and green growth strategies are incorporated in to national policies and strategies related to the environment, socio-economic development and national security. It will also coordinate actions and strategic planning across multiple sectors and report to the government;
220.127.116.11. The central government administration authority responsible for food and agriculture is responsible for the implementation of measures and projects to mitigate GHG emissions from the food and agriculture sector, and for measures to adapt to climate change in arable farming and animal husbandry. The authority will also report to the government;
18.104.22.168. The central government administration authority responsible for energy and mineral resources is responsible for the facilitation of GHG mitigation measures, improving efficiency in the energy sector, utilizing renewable energy resources and advanced technologies, and will report to the government;
22.214.171.124. The central government administration authority responsible for transport, construction and urban development facilitates the implementation of sustainable land management, urban and infrastructure development, land use policies and planning along with climate change mitigation and adaptation measures, improvement of the road network, exploitation of environmentally friendly fuels, improving public transportation, introducing efficient technologies with minimal energy and heat loss, increasing energy efficiency and producing ecologically responsible materials. The authority will also report to the government.
126.96.36.199. The central government administration authority responsible for education, culture and science will incorporate climate change and green development concepts into the education strategy for environment and sustainable development, improve educational curriculums at all levels and support research activities. The authority will also report to the government;
188.8.131.52. The central government administration authority responsible for health is responsible for actions to improve systems to protect the population from the potential negative impacts of climate change on human health. This includes prevention, diagnosis and treatment of potential new epidemics and strengthening the capacity of the health service. The authority will also report to the government;
184.108.40.206. The central government administration authority responsible for social welfare and labour facilitates measures and actions assessing the impacts of climate change on livelihoods, poverty and the employment rate. It will take action to minimise damages and strengthen the social welfare system. The authority will also report to the government;
220.127.116.11. The government administration agency responsible for state emergency is responsible for early warning systems and natural disaster preparedness. It also supports community groups in disaster management and strengthens risk management activities. The agency will also report to the government;
18.104.22.168. The government organization of standards and metrology facilitates activities regarding the development of standards for environmentally friendly and energy efficient technologies. The organization will also report to the government;
22.214.171.124. The national statistics centre maintains data and information systems for environmental assessments and status reports and GHG inventory data. It will compile a report and submit it to the NCC. The centre will also report to the government;
126.96.36.199. Local governments facilitate actions and measures related to climate change adaptation and GHG mitigation in local areas. This includes increasing carbon sequestration and improving waste management. Local governments will submit reports to the NCC.
4.3. The program funding and monitoring system
The program funding consists of state and local budgets, special funds (existing funds such as the environmental protection fund and excise duties and anticipated new funds such as natural disaster risk fund, pasture fund and the climate change adaptation fund), individual and organizations donations and international financial mechanism and funds.
Additional funding required for program implementation will be sought through the establishment of special designated fund, international and regional projects, international financial mechanisms and special international funds.
The program implementation will be evaluated against strategic objectives and outcomes, and baseline and target indicators will be defined for each phase of the program.
The program will be evaluated at the end of each phase and a mid-term evaluation report will be published within the first two months of 2012. The NCC will complete reports for the program according to the guidelines and submit them to the Government.
FIVE. PROGRAM OUTCOMES AND INDICATORS
The program outcomes will be evaluated against each strategic objective of the program. Major outcomes and indicators for each strategic objective are outlined in the below table.
5.1. Major outcomes and indicators of the national program
Major outcomes and indicators
Indicators of the first phase
Indicators of the second phase
Set legal environment, structure, institutional and management system that responding climate change issues
1. New laws will be passed and amendments will be made to existing laws.
2. An independent audit system will be established for GHG emission reductions and standards for energy saving will be approved.
3. A unit for coordination will be established at the international and national levels.
Ensure environmental sustainability and reduce socio-economic vulnerabilities and risks by strengthening the nation’s capacity to
adapt to climate change
1. Strengthen the capacity of the health service to prevent and respond to human health risks arising due to climate change. An adaptation strategy for the health sector will be developed.
2. An integrated water management project will be implemented in at least 3 river basins
1. Strengthen the capacity of the health service to prevent and respond to human health risks arising due to climate change.
2. An integrated water management project will be implemented in 7 river basins
Enhance the national climate observation, research and assessment network
1. An appropriate structure for the observation network will be established to ensure real time and continuous operation and the number of weather and water monitoring stations will each be increased by 30. 5-10 sites of permafrost monitoring and 2-3
sites of glacier observation will be set up. A monitoring network for ground water will be established.
2. Introducing fibre-optic cable technology for transferring climate change mapping and data to central and local regions
3. Expand the number of groundwater monitoring stations to at least 200, and the number of surface water monitoring stations by 30.
4. Climate change impact assessments will be updated every 5 years and the quality of impact and risk assessments will be improved for ecology and socio- economic sectors
1. The climate observation and monitoring system will meet global standards.
2. Powerful computer facilities will be used for disaster and climate change projections. A
3. Doppler radar system will be established to cover the entire area of the country.
4. A comprehensive adaptation policy and adaptation options will be defined based on updated climate change impact assessments and will be included in medium and long term plans for the socio- economic development of the country.
5. 30 permafrost monitoring stations will be established and 2-3 glacial research stations will be established.
Conduct public awareness activities and support citizen and community participation in climate change mitigation and adaptation action
1. Public knowledge about, and skills for, adapting to climate change and mitigating GHG emissions will be improved and the improved knowledge will be reflected in social research and survey results.
2. The number of training sessions, workshops, handouts and publications will be increased.
3. The number of individuals, community groups and organizations engaged in measures and projects responding to climate change will be increased.
POTENTIAL RISKS, AND THEIR SOLUTIONS, TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM
The following risks may be countered in the implementation of the program.
5.2.1. Natural or other disaster risks:
188.8.131.52. Widespread epidemics, plague, drought and dzud
184.108.40.206. Industrial catastrophes including power plant accidents
5.2.2. Risks related to economy:
220.127.116.11. National economic crisis or overspending in the state budget
18.104.22.168. Global and regional banking or financial crisis
22.214.171.124. Sudden drop in, or cessation of, foreign investments and economic support
126.96.36.199. Abrupt changes in costs of energy and oil products
188.8.131.52. Stagnant economic growth in partner countries and termination of aid and investment
184.108.40.206. Withdrawal of international protocols and conventions related to climate change and a decline in funding, investment, or technology transfer in clean development
5.2.3. Risks related decision making and management:
220.127.116.11. Poor execution of law and policies
18.104.22.168. Failure of government activities
22.214.171.124. Malfunction of accountability and monitoring systems between government institutions, unclear decision making roles and responsibilities
126.96.36.199. Prevalence of corruption
188.8.131.52. Deepening of social crises
184.108.40.206. Persistent poverty in the majority of the population
In order to prevent the above risks, a risk management plan will be implemented within the program framework.
MONGOLIAN GOVERNMENT RESOLUTION
09 Nov 2011 No 317 State Building, Ulaanbaatar city
Approval of the First Phase Implementation Plan of the National Action Program on Climate Change
- To approve the First Phase Implementation Plan of the National Action Program on Climate Change, as attached, in accordance with the Resolution No.2 of the State Great Khural (Parliament) of Mongolia.
- S. Bayartsogt, Minister of Finance; L. Gansukh, Minister of Nature, Environment and Tourism; T. Badamjunai, Minister of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry; Kh. Battulga, Minister of Road, Transportation, Construction and Urban Development; D. Zorigt, Minister of Mineral Resource and Energy; Yo. Otgonbayar, Minister of Education, Culture and Science; L. Bold, Minister of Defence and Governors of Ulaanbaatar city and aimags will be in charge of implementation of this plan through socio-economic development priorities, and including related expenses in the annual state budget.
- L. Gansukh, Minister of Nature, Environment and Tourism shall be in charge of supervising the implementation of this resolution.
Prime Minister of Mongolia S. Batbold Minister of Nature, Environment and Tourism L. Gansukh
Attachment to Mongolian Government Resolution No.317, 09 November 2011
FIRST PHASE IMPLEMENTATION PLAN OF THE NATIONAL ACTION PROGRAM ON CLIMATE CHANGE
Strategic objective 1: Set the legal environment, structure, institutional and management frameworks for addressing on climate change
To develop and implement a climate change adaptation strategy
To develop amendments to existing laws and regulations, such as the ‘Environment Protection Law’, the ‘Monitoring of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environment Law’, the ‘Energy Law’, the ‘Disaster Protection Law’, the ‘Construction Law’, the ‘Renewable Energy Law’, the ‘Water Law’, and the ‘Forest Law’, that are favourable to GHG mitigation and climate change adaptation activities.
MJHA, MMRE, MRTCUD, NEMA
To create a legal environment for supporting coordinated pasture utilization, soil protection, energy saving measures, improvement of energy efficiency, green development, and measures combating climate change
MRTCUD, MoFALI, MMRE
To create a legal environment for including basic data in the national statistics which will be used for creating the national GHG inventory
To establish independent audit systems to monitor power generation, energy consumption, and construction and insulation quality
To develop new standards for electric and thermal energy use, water saving, waste water re-use and processing. Set and adhere to new standards on maximum level of GHG emission of transport and some electronic devices.
To strengthen sectoral coordination structure and improve capacity building in the area of climate change
To develop action programs for climate change adaptation in vulnerable sectors (health, livestock, agriculture, water resources and water supply)
Strategic objective 2: Ensure environmental sustainability is maintained and reduce socio- economic vulnerabilities and risks through strengthening the national climate change adaptation capacity
To improve activities for early warning, disaster response and public awareness systems for human health risks and natural disasters induced by climate change
To set up integrated water management plans for river basins and up-stream areas
Aimags and UB city Governor’s Office
To assess water resources in the most vulnerable regions and coordinate development strategies and policies. To implement adaptation activities based in river basin ecosystems
To enhance management systems for natural forest conservation and implement key ecological restoration programs in response to climate change
Aimags and UB city Governor’s Office
To reduce land degradation and desertification, and increase the carbon sequestration potential of pasture and soils
To protect shrubs and bush species, such as saxaul (haloxylon ammodendron), by improving household fuel supply systems in the steppe and desert regions
To start measures intended to protect and conserve biological diversity and support climate change adaptation in special protected areas
Aimags and UB city Governor’s Office
To reduce livestock vulnerability and risks
To extend irrigated agriculture through the use of drought resistant crops, and water saving and soil protection technologies
To enhance field and remote sensing in land use and pastureland research
and support the local administration and herders
To implement projects and programs in order to improve human livelihoods, reduce poverty and build up new green workplaces
UB city Governor’s Office
To extend the number of buses and trolleybuses used for public transportation in cities
UB city Governor’s Office
To install insulation in buildings with high thermal loss in Ulaanbaatar and take other measures to reduce the rate of heat transfer
To improve land use efficiency, increase re-use of abandoned crop lands, impede cultivation of wilderness and expand mining rehabilitation efforts
To conduct forestation and reforestation activities, expand green compounds and increase carbon sequestration
To protect forests from harmful insects, ban illegal logging and implement measures against forest resource depletion
To improve and increase green spaces nurseries in centralized urban areas
To introduce advanced techniques and technologies for tree breeding and implement projects and programs in
cooperation with international and local organizations aimed to expand nation-wide tree-planting and the green belt zone
To build a solid waste classification, processing and recycling industry
UB city Governor’s Office
Strategic objective 4: Enhance the national climate observation, research and monitoring network and strengthen employees’ capacity
To enhance hydrology and meteorology monitoring systems and upgrade equipment and facilities
To improve normal operation of aerological stations
To restore solar radiation calculation
To set up observation and monitoring systems for ecosystems in special protected areas
To set up glacier, permafrost and desertification monitoring sites based on the existing hydrological and meteorological observation network
To establish a high mountain glacier research network in the Altai mountains
To encourage individuals, community groups, non government organizations and companies to take actions in response to climate change, run ‘green’ businesses, and support the consumption of ‘green’ products
Aimags and UB city Governor’s Office
To promote participation of, and partnership between, individuals, community groups, NGOs, business organizations and women in international and regional activities and forums
Aimags and UB city Governor’s Office
To implement projects and programs aimed to support the livelihoods of socially vulnerable groups (ethnic minorities, female-headed households, poor families), alleviate poverty and promote green jobs