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Sustainable Energy for Development (SED) Programme
Development needs energy. The reliable and efficient provision of modern energy services is a key to reducing poverty as well as boosting economic development. Bangladesh is targeting to achieve the status of middle income country by 2021 and to ensure electricity for all by 2021. Therefore country needs huge investment to f ill up the infrastructure gaps, especially in the energy sector as more than 10% demand growth of energy per year,which if not accommodated for, will create a bottleneck for economic growth. In order to cope with this rapid industria lization process, it has become essential to generate energy from alternative sources, especially in off grid areas, to spread the impact of economic prosperity and on the otherhand, to enable our industries and households become more energy efficient. The lack of supply of the much needed energy is one of the main factors hampering economic growth especially in the rural areas of Bangladesh.
|Project name||Renewable energy and energy efficiency programme|
|Commissioned by || German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)|
|Lead executing agency||Power Division, Ministry of Power, Energy, and Mineral Resources (MPEMR)|
|Duration ||2007 to 2016|
Addressing Bangladesh's energy needs is, therefore, one of the priority areas of Bangladeshi-German development cooperation. The Sustainable Energy for Development (SED) programme, supported by the Ministry of Power, Energy, and Mineral Resources and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ} implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ} GmbH,is working to promote the use of renewable energy,as well as efficient use of energy. This is done by improving the framework conditions towards building markets for sustainable energy solutions through building capacities of relevant stakeholders, promoting the application of energy efficient (EE) technologies and technologies for the generation of renewable energy (RE).
Developing the framework conditions for promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency through policy advocacy and institutional development of SREDA (Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Authority}
Developing locally customized technological solutions on sustainable energy delivery and establishing business cases through successfulpiloting
Facilitating market uptake of successful business models through capacity development of stakeholders, promoting access to finance and leveraging sustainable ownership
GIZ Intervention Areas
Building National Capacities
The Bangladesh Government is actively promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency in Bangladesh. The Renewable Energy Policy of Bangladesh, which was developed with the support from GIZ and other development organisations, states that ''5% of the total power demand shall be met by supply of energy from renewable resourcesby2015 and 10% by 2020''. Approximately 32 per cent of the people in Bangladesh do not have the access to electricity from the national grid, thus promoting sustainable low-carbon and low-pollution technologies, improve living standards, ensure clean energy supplies through the use of renewable energy and thereby contribute to the reduction in the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG). In order to strengthen capacities within the government to steer and manage this development, SEO has supported and faciitate the government to establish the national nodal agency SREDA. SREDA is now addressing the challenges and barriers for RE and EE markets.
The agency will also set appropriate regulation and legislation in Bangladesh and coordinate and leverage investments to the sector. SED's Capacity and Organisation Development (COD) component is dedicated to facilitate and accelerate all the activities of SREDA. COD is facilitating strengthening of SREDA in association with the UK government's Departmen t for Internat ional Development (DFID).
Solar PV Applications in Rural Areas
Rural Development Powered by Solar Home Systems
Bangladesh is globally appla uded for the solar home systems programme initiated by the Infrastructu re Development Company Ltd. (IDCOL), a Bangladesh Government owned financing company. More than 3.8 million solar home systems of 20-130Wp have been installed in the cou ntry's rural villages between 2003 and 2014, benefitting over fifteen million Bangladeshis. SEO, with co-f inancing from the multi-donor funded Energising Development (EnDev) Programme, provided funds as buy-down grants for more than 420,000 solar home systems.
Rural Development Powered by Solar Lantern/Pico-PV
SED and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) have launched the lighting Bangladesh initiative to jo intly improve the market conditions for smaller solar systems. To build up the lantern market, GIZ Bangladesh's Energising Development (EnDev) programme with co-financing from DFID solar lanterns commercial enterprises will be subsidised through buy down grant.
Solar PV Drinking Water Supply in Rural Areas
Bangladesh is one of the most climate change affected country and the adversity will continue to be more severe in coming days. Saline intrusion in the coastal belt areas of Khulna, Bagerhat and Satkhira districts is causing a huge crisis of safe drinking water.The situation becomes worse, as shrimp farming practices add to the salinisation of inland areas. Even in the non-coastal areas the quality of under ground water sources is questionable, as in some areas these are arsenic contamination. People of Coastal areas often rely on unsafe pond water which cause high incidence of water borne diseases. Rural women and girls are usually burdened with the responsibility of collecting water for their families.
To address this crucial problem, SED programme of GIZ Bangladesh started installing Solar Photovoltaic Pumping (PVP) Systems for drinking water supply since 2010. As of now, SED has supported the construction of more than 139 solar-powered waterpum ping facilities to ensure safe drinking water access in south-west region of the country. These facilities have a nominal capacity to supply approximately 2.18 million litres of drinking water on a daily basis. Different types of water sources, including surface and ground water have been explored.
SED has also provided technical assistance to COMP (Comprehen· sive Disaster Management Program), one the largest disaster management program based on this experience.At this stage, SED is working with SREDA to initiate a coordinated institutional process where the Government of Bangladesh can take up the whole process and continue.
Beyond the above mentioned technology intervention, SED is planning to intervene in Solar Water Heating System, Solar N ano-Grid and Institutiona l Solar Systems in the area of Solar Energy sector.
Energy from Waste
The conventional fuels required for the production of electricity is depleting day by day.It is im perative to explore alternative sources which can be used as the fuel for electricity generation. Bangladesh Government has alre-idy started the initiative to produce electricity with alternative sources like waste. At the same time, huge volume of waste disposal and management is a growing concern in Bangladesh. Addressing the above issues, the SED progra mme of GIZ, has jointly taken several initiatives to produce fuel and electricity from industry as well as municipal wastes.
Commercial and Institutional Biogas
The SED programme has been working with several partner organizations to promote the inst itutional and commercial use of biogas technology throughout Bangladesh . Biogas d igester is a simple, com paratively inexpensive. but highly eff ective way to managing waste.
Over 1500 commercial biogas plants have already been i nstalled in small to large scale businesses like dairy farms, and layer poultry f arms in Bangladesh with technical support of GIZ. The market potential is much bigger. Over 25000 dairy and 150,000 poultry farms in the country could benef it f rom the technology by reducing the use of traditional cooking fuels and diesel for power generation as well as prevent ing diseases and producing organic fertilizer.
The commercial biogas plants have the capacity of prod ucing electricity (of 5kW-50kW ). In addition, GIZ has started working on management of waste produced i n slaughter houses and use i t as raw materia l for biogas digesters. The SED project also intends to use agricultu ral residues like corn plants and water hyacinth as raw materia ls for biogas digesters.
Feasibility Study on Waste to Energy Conversion at Keraniganj
Renewable energy is one of the im portant fuel diversif ication strate gy identified by Bangladesh Government. Waste to energy is one of the key renewable energy options to the context of Bangladesh. It is also i nstru mental towards sustaina ble waste management for a densely populated cou ntry like Bangladesh . In response to request from Government of Ba ngladesh, SED program conducted a feasibility study at Keraniganj U pazilla (sub-district) of Dhaka on exploring possibility of waste to energy conversion. The objective of the study is to support Bangladesh Government in assess waste to energy potential in that area, recommend suitable tech nology, tech-economic analysis of the pilot project with the recom mended technology.GIZ's study had been handed over to the Government Power Division . Government of Bangladesh is now developi ng pilot project based on GIZ recommendation through its own f unding. GIZ is committed to Bangladesh Government in providing technical support in this regard.
Improved Cooking Solutions
The World Health Organization has estimated that 46,000 women and children die each year in Ba ngladesh as a direct result of exposure to indoor air pollution, while millions more suffer from respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, asthma, cardiovascular disease, eye problems, and lung cancer. Considering this as urgent problem GIZ has turned its attention to the inefficient and poorly ventilated clay stoves that the vast majority of Bangladeshis use for cooking.In Bangladesh, only 6 percent of the population has access to natural gas from grid supplies.The overdependence on biomass is causing deforestation.The traditional inefficient cooking practice has detrimental health hazards. SED programme of GIZ, has reviewed the existing technology of traditional stoves and cooking practices and developed simple, affordable solutions based on locally available materials as an alternative cooking solutions.
Improved Cooking Stoves
The "Bondhu Chula ", an improved stove, reduces the biomass required to cook a meal by u p to 50%. The addition of a chimney significantly reduces household member's exposure to harmf u l smoke and gas emissions.The originally design was developed by scientists of the Institute of Fuel Research and Development (IFRD) of Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR).
In 2012 to 2013 GIZ has disseminated more than 2 lacs 50 thousand improved stoves. The initiative was jointly implemented by a project 'Market Development Initiative for Bondhu Chula' with financial support from the Bangladesh CLimate Change Trust Fund (BCCT) and EnDev Bangladesh. Under the project over 5800 sanitary shops owners receive training on stove production , more than 1200 women volunteers and 500 promoters was encouraged for the wider uptake of the energy eff iciency, improved stoves. Since 2010 more than 1.8 million improved stoves have been installed in Bangladesh i households. Each of these stoves saves about one ton of CO2 emissions and around 500kg of wood per year. The programme Bondhu Chula envisages replacing all traditional stoves in Bangla desh with improved stoves by 2021, thereby saving thousands of lives, reducing consum ption of biomass and protecting the environment.
Retained Heat Cooker (RHC}
GIZ is promoting a type of retained heat cooker in the form of an insulated bag designed to red uce the amount of f uel req uired to cook food.The insula tion allows the food to continue cooking inside the bag with no further energy input. With the technical support of Islamic University of Technology (IUT) University different options of locally availa ble materials were identified. The bag has shown up to 70% of energy saving performa nce compared to gas and electric cooking. All sorts of food items with large amount of liquid can be cooked in this cooker,including rice, potato, chicken,vegetables, and beef etc. RHC can also be used as an ice box and yogurt maker. The pilot was initiated in 2014. Along with other partner organizations the SED programme has developed the product and started marketing. As a new product, which can be locally manufactured, and can create employment opportunities and thus reduce poverty.
Promotion of Technologies to Improve Energy Efficiency
Improved Rice Parboiling Systems
Bangladesh is the world 's sixth largest rice-producer. Pa rboiled rice is deeply rooted in Bangladeshi culture and way of life. It isthe staple food of about 160 million people in Bangladesh. Most of the Parboiled R ice (a bout 80%) is prod uced at 50,000 small and medium-sized rice mills in the country. The traditional boi lers used in rice parboiling are quite unsafe, cause occasiona l explosions leaving casualties of operators and on lookers.
In addition, traditional boilers emit smoke, poisonous carbon but also create health hazards for those who are exposed.. Keeping that in mind, SED programme of GIZ has taken an initiative monoxide and other particles that not only pollute theenvironment, on harvesting day light using solar pipe lfght in industries.
Considering the above factors, GIZ's SED program successfully developed the Improved Rice Pa rboiling System (IRPS) model at the request of Bangladesh Government. Using GIZ energy efficient par boiling system, about 50% of the rice husk, that is used for f i ring the boilers can be saved. The surplus husk is used to make briquette for cook stoves.It is also widely used as bed-spread in pou ltry ind us tries. The saved husk has other markets too. Saved rice bran ca n be made available for use i n edi ble oil industry. The im proved parboiling systems also have longer work ing life com pa red to the traditional ones. Not only the overall eff iciency is i ncreased, but huge pollution is also mitigated. By red ucing smoke emissions and introducing other safety measu res, the facilities provide a fa r more convenient, safer and hea lth ier working environ ment.
As of now, SED programme of GIZ has i nstalled 68 demo units i n 9 r ice mi ll clusters out of 50 rice m ill clusters available in the count ry. More tha n 50 tech nicians have been trained and 12 local service provid ers a re available as a result of GIZ's tech nical assistance and capacity development ini tiatives. SE D along with its counterpart SRE DA has now taken a jo int initiative i ntegrated parboiling and milling across rice mill clusters to promote energy eff iciency and productivity improvement in rice mill clusters.
Efficient Natural Lighting through Solar Pipe Light
Customised innovative simple tech nological solution can have the capaci ty to reduce the growing dema nd of energy as well as can ensu re ef ficient use of energy.
SED programme has piloted solar pipe lfght in two settings, one is in small cottage factory and another is in ice cream f actory. The study reveals that the pilot is helping the ind ustry to use free natu ral lighting du ring daytime for 10-12 hours covering around 750-800 sqft. factory area illum i nating equivalent light of 500 watt CFL bu lb. At the same time it saves monthly energy cost of around 1800 BDT. and red uces almost 77 kgs of carbon dioxide. Solar pipe light has a huge prospect in factories of Bangladesh to avoid electricity usage for day lighting.
Waste Heat Recovery from Power Station to run Cold Storages
Innovative tech nological intervention ca n red uce the energy dema nd as well as can ensu re efficient use of energy. Considering this issue, the SED program of GIZ Bangladesh has been conducti ng a study on power station waste heat recovery to ru n the Cold Storages. The study has been undertaken in line with visio n of the M inistry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources of Bangladesh Government. The study will recommend the potentia l suitable technologies and submit a techno-econom ic analysis of a pilot project. Based on study govern ment is expected to implement one pilot project in future.The study will also explore other possible use of waste.
Apart from the above i nterventions SED is plann ing to intervene in provi ding techn ical assistance in smart metering with power uti lities, promotion of efficient lighting in ga rments sector from the dema nd side ma nagement.
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