Energy environmental priorities:
[...] Current emission standards in Kazakhstan significantly exceed European benchmarks. More stringent standards on particulate matter, SO2 and
NOx emissions should be considered for adoption in Kazakhstan, if the country wants to improve air quality.
Pollution level targets, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx:
Art.3. Current policies need to be re-examined, tighter environmental regulations have to be introduced for reducing SOX, NOX in accordance with international emission standards and European pollutant emission requirements.
Pollution control action plans:
Gasification of regions: Akmola and Karaganda regions by 2020; Northern and Eastern regions by 2030. (Including switching of power plants from coal to gas in large cities provided that gas supply is secured at a reasonable price level).--- Retrofit existing coal-fired power plants, which will amount to 8.3 GW capacity by 2020, i.e. retrofit existing coal-fired power plants which will be operated after 2020 with filters for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen to comply with today’s emission standards.---New thermal plants should be equipped with best globally available technologies in terms of fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness.--- Existing old coal-fired plants should be gradually replaced with modern coalfired plants – except in big cities, where power generation will migrate to gas, in case gas is available and affordable, provided: The Government sticks to the policy of gas production at oil and gas fields focused on maximum extraction of hydrocarbons; The Government makes an effort to implement a long-term price policy in the domestic market which will foster increased gas consumption. ---Investments for the creation of gas infrastructure in the North, East and South regions are needed. This is required to allow switching coal CHPs to gas in all big cities, provided it is available and affordable. This will primarily result in lower local emissions and better air quality, and ensuring flexible backup capacity for intermittent renewable energy sources--- Switching existing coal CHPs to gas, primarily in the big cities (Almaty, Astana,Karagandy), and constructing new gas-fired power plants until 2020 to improve environmental setting in these cities.---Until the end of 2014, develop the principles and the roadmap of transition to new emission standards close to EU norms together with power, heat producers and other major industrial players.---Develop and implement standards close to EU norms.---Retrofit and install filters at plants and industrial enterprises located in the proximity to big cities, match emission indicators to current standards according to the developed roadmap. ---Switch existing coal-fired power plants to gas, if gas infrastructure and volumes are available and if it is cost effective.---Large boilers at coal power plants should be retrofitted at first instance with modern control technology for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Smaller units should be allowed to operate until decommissioning in order to satisfy the demand for electricity.---Install equipment for constant control of air emissions at large power plants,
boilers and industrial enterprises.
---Perform continuous monitoring and control over emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases through Kazakhstan’s environmental protection authority.
Capture carbon dioxide: Plant permanent crops, such as agro-forestry, tree crops, perennial crops, permanent cover crops that capture carbon dioxide and are resistant to soil salinity, as well as enable adaptation to the climate change
Land use change for energy production purposes:
. Use resources wisely: Foster agrochemical and fuel use that protects users,respects the environment, reduces/prevents soil, air, and water pollution, e.g.,through Integrated Pest Management, fertilizer use based on soil testing, and improved fuel efficiency farm vehicles
Implementing energy efficiency technologies (saves water per 1 unit of natural product) and water saving technologies in the energy, mining
and metallurgy sectors (will reduce consumption by 20%).---Reinforce water abstraction and treatment standards for new industry plants.