Meta Data
Title in national language: 
Концепция перехода Республики Казахстан к "зеленой экономике" до 2050 года
Draft: 
No
Revision of previous policy?: 
Yes
Draft Year: 
2013
Effective Start Year: 
2013
Effective End Year: 
2050
Scope: 
National
Document Type: 
Plan/Strategy
Economic Sector: 
Multi-Sector
Energy Types: 
All
Issued by: 
Office of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Notes: 
Draft was initially adopted in 2011.
Overall Summary: 
The Concept of Transition towards Green Economy until 2050 is a strategic policy document developed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and UNDP in response to existing environmental concerns. Evolving appropriate regulatory frameworks and incentives on sustainable and renewable energy are a priority, adapting to climate change and addressing the challenges associated with reducing carbon dependency are other major areas of concern. The Concept aims to increase efficiency in resources utilization, proposes measures for modernization of existing infrastructure, protection of the environment, in a broader term, for enhancing the energy security of Kazakhstan. The Concept analyzes existing environmental threats, in response to these issues requires to formulate effective policy measures coherent with global initiatives. The implementation of the Green Economy Concept will be performed in three stages: 2013-2020 – During this period, the main priority of the state will be to optimize resource use and increase the efficiency of the environment protection activities, as well as to establish green infrastructure; 2020-2030 – Based on the established green infrastructure, transformation of the national economy will start, oriented at rational water use, motivation and stimulation of development and broad implementation of renewable energy technologies, as well as construction of facilities based on high energy efficiency standards; 2030-2050 – Transition of the national economy to principles of Third Industrial Revolution, which require the use of natural resources on the condition of renewability and sustainability. The goals already set for Kazakhstan with regard to most long-term sector and resource indicators until 2050 are aspirational and therefore were taken into account in the course of development of the Green Economy Concept.
Access
Energy access action plan: 
Gasification of regions: Akmola and Karaganda regions by 2020; Northern and Eastern regions by 2030. (Including switching of power plants from coal to gas in large cities provided that gas supply is secured at a reasonable price level).
Consumer subsidies: 
Protection for socially vulnerable population groups: Options to mitigate the impact of the increased tariffs on vulnerable population groups include:  Additional welfare payments – either amending the existing scheme or introducing additional payments for vulnerable groups (for example, the low income elderly);  Discounts on energy bills – by regulating companies to provide these discounts.--- To improve energy efficiency in the building stock, the right preconditions on the consumer and the producer side should be created by: [...] Developing targeted support for socially vulnerable population groups;
Efficiency
EE targets: 
[D]ecrease energy intensity of GDP by 10 percent until 2015 and by 25 percent by 2020; by 30% by 2030; and by 50% by 2050 (aspirational target) compared to 2008 baseline;
EE action plans: 
Development of a management structure to support implementation of energy saving and energy efficiency improvement initiatives, e.g., through a public private partnership.
EE industry standards: 
Energy efficiency implementation approach in industry: 1. Conducting regular energy audits and setting energy efficiency targets for manufactured products. 2. Revision of energy consumption standards for new equipment. 3. Defining plan for transition towards economically sustainable levels of electricity and heat tariffs. 4. Definition of industry support measures to support the competitiveness of enterprises in the transition period. International criteria for selection of enterprises to receive support including energy intensity level and possibility to compete in the global market. ---The main technical activities for energy saving and energy efficiency increase in industry are:  Modernization of industry to reduce power resource consumption per production unit;  Introduction of innovative technologies for increased energy efficiency; Provision of financial support for modernization of enterprises; provision with human resources in the area of energy efficiency;  Cooperation of science and industry in modernization of equipment and creation of lean production.
EE building standards: 
It is necessary to develop new indicators to monitor the transition to an energy efficient building and heat sector, including the penetration rate of building-level metering devices, energy efficiency levels of existing and new building stock, level of losses in heat distribution and quantity and professional expertise of inspectors especially for complex construction.---The key technical measures or energy saving and energy efficiency improvements in building and heat are:  Old and inefficient boilers need to be upgraded or replaced; [...] Thermal upgrade of existing buildings during overhauls with partial implementation of energy-saving technologies;  New stock needs to be built according to the latest insulation standards;  To improve energy efficiency in the building stock, the right preconditions on the consumer and the producer side should be created by: а) Adjusting heat tariffs to sustainable level ensuring payback; b) Installing heat meters, heat substations and transitioning to billing based on actual heat consumption; c) Developing targeted support for socially vulnerable population groups; d) Providing capital support to upgrade district heating networks, generation capacities and buildings.--- To improve energy efficiency in the building stock, one or both of the options below can be used:  Financial support to upgrade district heating networks, generation and buildings in the form of grants, loans, tax breaks, and interest rate subsidies, etc.;  Heat tariff revision to allow the heating system to become self-sustaining. This will need to be accompanied by installation of heat meters, heat substations and a transition to billing based on actual heat consumption.
EE transport standards : 
Energy efficiency implementation approach in the transport sector. In order to increase energy efficiency in the transport sector, one should organize work in the following major areas.1. Providing an optimal structure for the transport fleet by means of monitoring,and ensuring that all requirements onnected with fuel efficiency with respect to new cars appearing in the market are fulfilled. 2. Developing alternative types of transport and respective infrastructure, in particular for electric cars and gas-fueled cars. 3. Ensuring the use of high quality fuel. 4. Developing an incentive program for car disposal aimed at transport fleet renewal within shorter terms (for example, in form of trade-in schemes for more eco-friendly cars). 5. Improvement in the transport flows control system (smart traffic control system) is required. 6. Transportation control (transport infrastructure enabling efficient use of all transport types, increase of accessibility and quality of public transport). The main technical activities for energy saving and energy efficiency in the transport sector are:  Development of energy efficient transport infrastructure;  Increase in railway transport efficiency;  Increase in energy efficiency of local public transport due to its conversion to clean fuel (gas and electricity).
EE financial incentives: 
Energy efficiency implementation approach in the buildings and heat sectors; 1. Tariff setting and capital support. To improve energy efficiency in the building stock, one or both of the options below can be used:  Financial support to upgrade district heating networks, generation and buildings in the form of grants, loans, tax breaks, and interest rate subsidies, etc.;  [...]--- Providing state support to develop the local insulation materials, windows and pre-insulated pipelines industries and other energy-efficient equipment and material production.
EE public awareness/promotional programmes: 
Education and culture supporting the environment in the business community and among all citizens of Kazakhstan: Existing educational programs on the rational use of resources and environmental protection shall be improved and new ones shall be developed in the system of education and professional training
Renewable Energy
RE priorities: 
Renewable energy should be developed through building wind and solar power plants.
RE targets: 
Share of alternative sources (solar, wind, hydro and nuclear) in electricity production: not less than 3% by 2017; 30% by 2030; 50% by 2050 (aspirational) over 2008 levels.
RE action plans: 
[D]istributed power supply of remote areas enabled by the use of renewable energy sources will provide cheap electricity that will lead to establishment of new businesses, such as greenhouse facilities and free range cattle rearing and improve the regions’ competitive edge.
Environment
Energy environmental priorities: 
[...] Current emission standards in Kazakhstan significantly exceed European benchmarks. More stringent standards on particulate matter, SO2 and NOx emissions should be considered for adoption in Kazakhstan, if the country wants to improve air quality.
Pollution level targets, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx: 
Art.3. Current policies need to be re-examined, tighter environmental regulations have to be introduced for reducing SOX, NOX in accordance with international emission standards and European pollutant emission requirements.
Pollution control action plans: 
Gasification of regions: Akmola and Karaganda regions by 2020; Northern and Eastern regions by 2030. (Including switching of power plants from coal to gas in large cities provided that gas supply is secured at a reasonable price level).--- Retrofit existing coal-fired power plants, which will amount to 8.3 GW capacity by 2020, i.e. retrofit existing coal-fired power plants which will be operated after 2020 with filters for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen to comply with today’s emission standards.---New thermal plants should be equipped with best globally available technologies in terms of fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness.--- Existing old coal-fired plants should be gradually replaced with modern coalfired plants – except in big cities, where power generation will migrate to gas, in case gas is available and affordable, provided: The Government sticks to the policy of gas production at oil and gas fields focused on maximum extraction of hydrocarbons;  The Government makes an effort to implement a long-term price policy in the domestic market which will foster increased gas consumption. ---Investments for the creation of gas infrastructure in the North, East and South regions are needed. This is required to allow switching coal CHPs to gas in all big cities, provided it is available and affordable. This will primarily result in lower local emissions and better air quality, and ensuring flexible backup capacity for intermittent renewable energy sources--- Switching existing coal CHPs to gas, primarily in the big cities (Almaty, Astana,Karagandy), and constructing new gas-fired power plants until 2020 to improve environmental setting in these cities.---Until the end of 2014, develop the principles and the roadmap of transition to new emission standards close to EU norms together with power, heat producers and other major industrial players.---Develop and implement standards close to EU norms.---Retrofit and install filters at plants and industrial enterprises located in the proximity to big cities, match emission indicators to current standards according to the developed roadmap. ---Switch existing coal-fired power plants to gas, if gas infrastructure and volumes are available and if it is cost effective.---Large boilers at coal power plants should be retrofitted at first instance with modern control technology for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Smaller units should be allowed to operate until decommissioning in order to satisfy the demand for electricity.---Install equipment for constant control of air emissions at large power plants, boilers and industrial enterprises. ---Perform continuous monitoring and control over emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases through Kazakhstan’s environmental protection authority.
Decarbonization strategy: 
Capture carbon dioxide: Plant permanent crops, such as agro-forestry, tree crops, perennial crops, permanent cover crops that capture carbon dioxide and are resistant to soil salinity, as well as enable adaptation to the climate change
Land use change for energy production purposes: 
. Use resources wisely: Foster agrochemical and fuel use that protects users,respects the environment, reduces/prevents soil, air, and water pollution, e.g.,through Integrated Pest Management, fertilizer use based on soil testing, and improved fuel efficiency farm vehicles
Energy-water nexus: 
 Implementing energy efficiency technologies (saves water per 1 unit of natural product) and water saving technologies in the energy, mining and metallurgy sectors (will reduce consumption by 20%).---Reinforce water abstraction and treatment standards for new industry plants.
Pricing
Energy pricing: 
Energy efficiency implementation approach in the buildings and heat sectors; 1. Tariff setting and capital support. To improve energy efficiency in the building stock, one or both of the options below can be used:  Financial support to upgrade district heating networks, generation and buildings in the form of grants, loans, tax breaks, and interest rate subsidies, etc.;  Heat tariff revision to allow the heating system to become self-sustaining. This will need to be accompanied by installation of heat meters, heat substations and a transition to billing based on actual heat consumption.
Energy Supply and Infrastructure
Energy supply priorities: 
Diversify power supply by investing in nuclear power generation, also in order to create healthy competition in the power sector and to maintain the competitiveness of the uranium mining industry. [...].
Energy mix: 
Share of alternative sources (solar, wind, hydro and nuclear) in electricity production: not less than 3% by 2017; 30% by 2030; 50% by 2050 (aspirational) over 2008 levels.---Share of gas power plants in electricity production 20% in 2020; 25% in 2030; 30% in 2050. --- Diversify power supply by investing in nuclear power generation, also in order to create healthy competition in the power sector and to maintain the competitiveness of the uranium mining industry. Installed nuclear capacity will equal 1.5 GW in 2030 and 2.0 GW in 2050. [...].---Introduce a target for gas generation as a proportion of the generation mix by 2020
Infrastructure development priorities: 
Modernization of existing and development of new infrastructure.---Existing infrastructure: Conduct technical audit and energy audit of all existing power plants by 2020 to determine timing of modernization and residual lifetime; ---Switching existing coal CHPs to gas, primarily in the big cities (Almaty, Astana,Karagandy), and constructing new gas-fired power plants until 2020 to improve environmental setting in these cities.--- District heating systems should leverage co-generation while expanding or adjusting the heat supply system; Old pipes need to be replaced with new pre-insulated pipes, smallest pipes being the highest priority, as they represent more than 60 percent of the total pipeline network and require a quarter of the funds required to upgrade the whole network and account for the majority of losses;
Investment
Energy sector investment priorities: 
A great share of such investments (up to 50%) will be allocated to renewable and alternative energy sources, and this will make it possible to create new jobs in the high tech renewable energy sector.---The largest share of these investments (slightly more than USD 90 billion or 3/4 of the total investments over the whole period till 2050) will be used for implementing energy efficient measures and developing renewable energy as well as establishing gas infrastructure. Measures aimed at developing agriculture, water and waste management will be less demanding in terms of financing (Exhibit 3).--- Investments for the creation of gas infrastructure in the North, East and South regions are needed. This is required to allow switching coal CHPs to gas in all big cities, provided it is available and affordable. This will primarily result in lower local emissions and better air quality, and ensuring flexible backup capacity for intermittent renewable energy sources
Local content requirement: 
Providing state support to develop the local insulation materials, windows and pre-insulated pipelines industries and other energy-efficient equipment and material production.
Public Private Partnerships: 
Development of a management structure to support implementation of energy saving and energy efficiency improvement initiatives, e.g., through a public private partnership.
Governance
Energy institutional structures: 
Art. 5. Particular attention is paid to building institutional capacities through interagency cooperation. Environmental concerns are given a priority. Interagency green economy regulating body under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is to be established and report on green policy program implementation every three years.
Technology
Clean energy technology priorities: 
Modernization of the economy using the most efficient technologies: [...] Kazakhstan will increase by few times its GDP, its industrial output as well as the size of infrastructure in approximately the next 20 years. These transformations together will offer the opportunity to apply fundamentally new technologies,[...] innovative approaches to power generation within the framework of the Third Industrial Revolution.---The largest share of these investments (slightly more than USD 90 billion or 3/4 of the total investments over the whole period till 2050) will be used for implementing energy efficient measures and developing renewable energy as well as establishing gas infrastructure. Measures aimed at developing agriculture, water and waste management will be less demanding in terms of financing (Exhibit 3).---Introduction of innovative technologies for increased energy efficiency; Provision of financial support for modernization of enterprises; provision with human resources in the area of energy efficiency;---New thermal plants should be equipped with best globally available technologies in terms of fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness. ---Large boilers at coal power plants should be retrofitted at first instance with modern control technology for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Smaller units should be allowed to operate until decommissioning in order to satisfy the demand for electricity.
Low-emission and cleaner coal technology: 
Existing old coal-fired plants should be gradually replaced with modern coalfired plants – except in big cities, where power generation will migrate to gas, in case gas is available and affordable, provided: The Government sticks to the policy of gas production at oil and gas fields focused on maximum extraction of hydrocarbons;  The Government makes an effort to implement a long-term price policy in the domestic market which will foster increased gas consumption.