Meta Data
Title in national language: 
中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十二个五年规划
Draft: 
No
Revision of previous policy?: 
No
Draft Year: 
2011
Effective Start Year: 
2011
Effective End Year: 
2015
Scope: 
National
Document Type: 
Overarching Policy
Economic Sector: 
Multi-Sector
Energy Types: 
All
Issued by: 
China's National People's Congress
Notes: 
The English translation version is not complete
Overall Summary: 
China's FYPs are blueprints providing overall objectives and goals related to social and economic growth and industrial planning in key sectors and regions. Compared to previous FYPs, the 12th FYP focuses more on the quality, rather than the rate of growth, as well as ensuring more Chinese citizens benefit from that growth. The 12th FYP has key themes of rebalancing the economy, ameliorating social inequality and protecting the environment. Some important initiatives of the economic rebalancing theme in the 12th FYP include a notional GDP growth rate target of 7 percent, promoting consumption over investments and exports, closing the income gap through minimum wage hikes and increased social safety nets, and a range of energy efficiency targets. Chinese planners have included several preferential tax, fiscal and procurement policies designed to develop seven “Strategic Emerging Industries” (SEIs). The seven industries are biotechnology, new energy, high-end equipment manufacturing, energy conservation and environmental protection, clean-energy vehicles, new materials, and next-generation IT.
Access
Energy access priorities: 
Rural power supply project. Implement comprehensive grid transformation in the rural place where the grids are still old, and transform and upgrade the grid in the place where there is a lack of power supply capacity but a rapid growth of demand for electricity.
Energy access action plan: 
Strengthen rural energy construction, continue to implement new rural hydropower electrification projects and strengthen implementations of fuel replacement by small hydropower constructions, and implement of a new round of rural power grid upgrade project.
Energy access targets: 
All villages are electricified, all populations have access to electricity.
Clean cooking solutions: 
Strengthen rural energy development, [...]develop biomass energy, wind energy and solar energy, and to strengthen the transformation of fuel-saving stove.
Efficiency
EE priorities: 
Promoting the leapfrog development of key fields: Develop new strategic industries energetically, such as energy-saving and environment-friendly new-generation IT, biology, high-end equipment manufacturing, new energy sources, new materials and new energy automobile. ---The building industry should extend green buildings and green construction, and focus on the optimization of the structure and service pattern with advanced building techniques, materials and information technology. --For energy conservation and environmental protection industries, implement major exemplary projects in energy conservation and environmental protection, and promote the industrialization of efficient energy conservation, advanced environmental protection and resource recycling --[C]ontrol the excessive growth of high energy-consuming industries, inforce managements of the industrial, construction, transportation, public institutions and other areas of energy-saving and strengthening energy-saving management of key energy-consuming companies. Strengthen energy-saving target responsibility assessment, improve the reward and punishment system. Improve energy-saving regulations and standards, formulate and improve the strict implementation of the main energy-consuming products, energy consumption limits and product energy efficiency standards, to strengthen investment in fixed assets investment in energy-saving assessment and review. --We must rationally regulate our total energy consumption levels, carry out serious management of resource usage, accelerate the formulation of resource development plans, clarify total regulatory targets and define a workable mechanism. --[...]improve energy-saving products, energy-saving products certification and governmental mandatory procurement for energy-saving products system.
EE targets: 
The 12th FYP is expected to contain preferential measures for developing energy-efficiency technology, as well as an expected mandatory energy emissions target of approximately 17 percent (down from the 11th FYP’s 20 percent). --Energy consumption per unit of GDP will decrease 16%.
EE action plans: 
Four key areas for energy conservation: 1) Energy-saving conversion projects 2) Energy-saving projects that benefit the people 3) Demonstration of energy-saving technologies in industry 4) Promote energy performance contracting.---Strengthen energy conservation and management: We will strengthen energy conservation management. We will formulate and implement limits on energy consumption per unit of production in energy-intensive industries and energy efficiency standards for the end-use of energy-consuming products. We will strictly enforce the system for assessing and examining energy savings in investment projects.---Automobile: Promote high-efficiency internal combustion machines, high-efficiency driving, light-weight materials and structures, complete vehicle optimization, ordinary hybrid power technologies, and the energy conservation of automobile products. --Improve energy efficiency market mechanism, speed up the implementation of contract energy management and demand side management, --[...] rationally guide the construction of rural houses and settlements, and provide residential design drawings that are economically safe, economically viable and energy-saving for household.
EE labeling: 
We will look into creating low carbon product standardisation, labelling and authentication systems, establish an effective system for calculating GHG emission statistics and gradually create a carbon emissions trading system. --[...]improve energy efficiency labeling, energy-saving products, energy-saving products certification and governmental mandatory procurement for energy-saving products system.
EE building standards: 
In the field of building materials, focus on the development of photovoltaic glass, [...]develop new building materials and products that meet green building requirements.
EE financial incentives: 
Energy-saving products for people project: increase subsidies for the energy-efficient appliances, automobiles, motors and lighting products, and promote efforts to expand the scope of the implementation.
EE public awareness/promotional programmes: 
Encourage the green, low-carbon consumption concept, and promote the green lifestyle and the consumption model in correspondence with China's national conditions. Encourage consumers to purchase energy-saving and water-saving products, energy-saving environmentally friendly cars and energy-saving land-type housing, reduce the use of disposable supplies, limiting excessive packaging[...].
Renewable Energy
RE priorities: 
New energy industry: Construct industrial bases for new-generation nuclear power equipment, large wind power generating sets and parts, new assemblies of efficient solar power generation and heat utilization, biomass energy conversion and utilization technologies, and intelligent power grid equipment, and implement exemplary large-scale application projects of marine wind power, solar power and biomass energy.--Promoting the development of diversified and clean energy sources: Strengthen the construction of grid-connection works, and develop wind power effectively. Develop solar energy, biomass energy, geothermal energy and other new energy sources actively. Promote the extended application of distributed energy systems. ---A key government priority is the further development of the country's ever-struggling power grid (30 percent of wind farms were not connected to grid by the end of 2009).---Promoting the development of diversified and clean energy sources: Develop hydropower actively on the precondition of proper ecological conservation and resettlement. --Strengthen rural energy construction, continue to implement new rural hydropower electrification projects and strengthen implementations of fuel replacement by small hydropower constructions, and implement of a new round of rural power grid upgrade project. --Strengthen rural energy development, [...]develop biomass energy, wind energy and solar energy, and to strengthen the transformation of fuel-saving stove.
RE targets: 
By 2015 non-fossil energy will rise to 11.4 percent in the national total primary energy consumption. Hydropower’s capacity will increase by 50 percent by 2015. --Rural power supply project.[...]. Build 1000 solar energy demonstration villages and 200 green energy counties. Construct 300 new rural hydropower electrification counties and new small hydropower installed capacity of 10 million kilowatts. --Rural biogas project. Build small and medium-large sized biogas service system for household biogas, to ensure that more than 50% of the appropriate users to biogas. --Renewable energy sources: Construct large-sized hydropower stations in key watersheds, such as those of the Jinsha, Yalong and Dadu Rivers, and commence the construction of hydropower projects with a total installed capacity of 120 million kW. Construct 6 onshore and 2 coastal and offshore large wind power bases, with an additional installed capacity of over 70 million kW. Construct solar energy power stations with a total installed capacity of over 5 million kW with focus on Tibet, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Yunnan.
RE action plans: 
Develop hydropower actively on the precondition of proper ecological conservation and resettlement, focus on the construction of large-sized hydropower stations in southwestern China, develop medium and small river waterpower resources based on local conditions, and plan and construct pumped storage power stations scientifically. ---Construct large-sized hydropower stations in key watersheds, such as those of the Jinsha, Yalong and Dadu Rivers, and commence the construction of hydropower projects with a total installed capacity of 120 million kW. Construct 6 onshore and 2 coastal and offshore large wind power bases, with an additional installed capacity of over 70 million kW. Construct solar energy power stations with a total installed capacity of over 5 million kW with focus on Tibet, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Yunnan.
Environment
Energy environmental priorities: 
We will positively respond to global climate change. Massive reductions in energy consumption intensity and carbon dioxide emissions should be regarded as binding targets to efficiently control greenhouse gas emissions. --- We must significantly reduce the intensity of our energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as well as effectively regulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. ---Building materials: Support the co-disposal of urban domestic garbage based on cement kiln, and the construction of sludge production lines and exemplary lines of integrated utilization of waste building gases and materials. Develop new building materials and products that meet green building requirements.--Innovation and development of new strategic industries: Energy conservation and environmental protection industries-Implement major exemplary projects in energy conservation and environmental protection, and promote the industrialization of efficient energy conservation, advanced environmental protection and resource recycling. -- We will take climate change factors into full consideration when planning and creating industrial sector composition, basic facilities and large scale projects. --[W]e must carry out comprehensive adjustments to the composition of the industrial and resource structures, save energy and improve energy efficiency and increase forest carbon sinks, amongst several other measures. We must significantly reduce the intensity of our energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as well as effectively regulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. --[W]e will look into creating low carbon product standardisation, labelling and authentication systems, establish an effective system for calculating GHG emission statistics and gradually create a carbon emissions trading system. We will advance low carbon pilot projects.
Pollution level targets, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx: 
Total decrease in emissions of major pollutants (%): Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 8%, Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 8%, Ammonia Nitrogen 10%, Nitrous Oxides 10%.
GHG emissions reduction targets: 
At 2015, CO2 emission per unit of GDP will decrease by 17 percent from 2010. Energy consumption per unit of GDP will decrease 16%. By 2020, CO2 emission per unit of GDP will be 40-45 percent lower than in 2005.
Pollution control action plans: 
Four Key areas of environment governance projects: 1) The construction of waste (sewage and rubbish) treatment facilities 2) Restoring environmental health to rivers and lakes 3) Hazardous waste and soil pollution 4) Heavy metal pollution prevention and control ---Iron and steel: Focus on the development of energy conservation and emission reduction technologies, such as energy management and control system, high-temperature and high-pressure dry coke quenching, integrated residual heat utilization and desulfurization of sintering flue gas.---Non-ferrous metals: Support the extended application of cutting-edge smelting technologies, short and continuous processes, and energy conservation and emission reduction technologies.---We will revise energy consumption structures and increase the use of non-fossil energy resources as well as increase forest cover, volume, and carbon sequestration. --In the field of new-energy automobile industry, conduct R&D and large-scale commercialization demonstration projects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles, and promote industrialized application. -Desulfurization and denitrification project: new coal-fired units have to be installed with supporting construction of desulfurization and denitration devices.
Decarbonization strategy: 
We will revise energy consumption structures and increase the use of non-fossil energy resources as well as increase forest cover, volume, and carbon sequestration. --- This plan will establish and improve the statistical monitoring system of greenhouse gas emissions and energy saving and emission reductions, devote more efforts to climate change research, accelerate low carbon application and research, and establish a carbon emission trading market. ---Improve the incentive mechanism of energy conservation and emission reduction. Optimize the energy consumption structure, improve the mechanism of pricing and resources product and resource and environmental taxation, and strengthen the related laws, regulations and standard.---We will accelerate research, development and application of low carbon technologies and regulate GHG emitting sectors such as industry, construction, transportation and agriculture. --We will promote the planting of trees and forestation to increase the national forest-cover area to 12.5 million hectares. We will accelerate research, development and application of low carbon technologies and regulate GHG emitting sectors such as industry, construction, transportation and agriculture
Carbon markets: 
This plan will establish establish a carbon emission trading market. --- We will look into creating low carbon product standardisation, labelling and authentication systems, establish an effective system for calculating GHG emission statistics and gradually create a carbon emissions trading system.
Energy-water nexus: 
Develop hydropower actively on the precondition of proper ecological conservation and resettlement, focus on the construction of large-sized hydropower stations in southwestern China, develop medium and small river waterpower resources based on local conditions, and plan and construct pumped storage power stations scientifically.
Cooperation in env.: 
Adhering to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, we will actively participate in international negotiations and promote the establishment of a fair and reasonable international system for confronting climate change. We will strengthen international exchange and strategic policy dialogue on climate change. We will also develop pragmatic cooperation in areas like scientific research, technology research and development and capacity building, as well as push for the establishment of an international cooperation platform and management system for funding and technology transfer. We will provide help and support to developing countries in confronting the challenges of climate change.
Energy Supply and Infrastructure
Energy supply priorities: 
Strengthen the exploration and development of petroleum and natural gas resources, stabilize domestic petroleum output, and promote the rapid growth of natural gas output, and the development and utilization of unconventional oil and gas resources, such as coal-bed gas and shale gas. --Nuclear power construction: accelerate the development of nuclear power in coastal provinces, promote nuclear power construction in central provinces steadily, and construct nuclear power projects with a total installed capacity of 40 million kW. --Stabilizing oil output and increasing gas output: create the 5 large-scale oil and gas producing areas of the Tarim and Junggar Basins, the Liaosong Basin, the Ordos Basin, the Bohai Bay Basin and the Sichuan Basin, accelerate the exploration and development of offshore and deep-water oil and gas fields, and strengthen the production and utilization of coal-bed gas in coal mine areas. Increase oil refining capability appropriately.
Infrastructure development priorities: 
We will revise energy consumption structures and increase the use of non-fossil energy resources [...].---New energy industry: Construct industrial bases for new-generation nuclear power equipment, large wind power generating sets and parts, new assemblies of efficient solar power generation and heat utilization, biomass energy conversion and utilization technologies, and intelligent power grid equipment, and implement exemplary large-scale application projects of marine wind power, solar power and biomass energy. --- Optimizing the layout of energy development: Plan national energy development and construction priorities in a unified manner, construct five national integrated energy bases in Shanxi, the Ordos Basin, eastern Inner Mongolia, southwestern China and Xinjiang, and develop nuclear power in the eastern costal region and some areas in central China mainly. Improve the level of local energy processing and transformation to reduce the pressure of large-scale and long-distance energy transmission. Plan and construct energy storage facilities rationally, improve the petroleum reserve system, and strengthen the capacity of natural gas and coal reserve and peak molulation. --- Strengthening the construction of energy transmission channels: Accelerate the construction of the strategic transmission channels for northwestern, northeastern, southwestern China and sea-imported oil and gas, and improve the domestic trunk oil and gas pipe network. Make unified planning of natural gas import pipelines, LNG receiving stations, and cross-regional trunk gas transmission and distribution networks, and create a gas supply layout in which natural gas, coal-bed gas and coal-based gas are balanced. Accelerate the building of a modern power grid system, further expand the size of west-to-east power transmission, improve regional trunk power grids, and develop advanced large-capacity, high-efficiency and long-distance power transmission technologies to meet requirements for large-scale cross-regional power transmission and the grid connection of new energy generated power. Promote the construction of intelligent power grids, strengthen urban and rural power grid construction and improvement, and improve the electric performance and supply reliability of power grids using advanced information, control and energy storage technologies.---Priorities of energy construction: 01 Coal development and transformation: Accelerate the construction of coal bases in northern Shaanxi, Huanglong, Shendong, eastern Inner Mongolia and eastern Ningxia, drive the construction of coal bases in northern, eastern and central Shanxi, Yunnan and Guizhou steadily, and start the construction of the Xinjiang coal base. Construct some large coal-fired power bases on the basis of the above coal bases.--- 02 Stabilizing oil output and increasing gas output: Create the 5 large-scale oil and gas producing areas of the Tarim and Junggar Basins, the Liaosong Basin, the Ordos Basin, the Bohai Bay Basin and the Sichuan Basin, accelerate the exploration and development of offshore and deep-water oil and gas fields, and strengthen the production and utilization of coal-bed gas in coal mine areas. Increase oil refining capability appropriately. 03 Nuclear power: Accelerate the development of nuclear power in coastal provinces, promote nuclear power construction in central provinces steadily, and construct nuclear power projects with a total installed capacity of 40 million kW. 04 Renewable energy sources: Construct large-sized hydropower stations in key watersheds, such as those of the Jinsha, Yalong and Dadu Rivers, and commence the construction of hydropower projects with a total installed capacity of 120 million kW. Construct 6 onshore and 2 coastal and offshore large wind power bases, with an additional installed capacity of over 70 million kW. Construct solar energy power stations with a total installed capacity of over 5 million kW with focus on Tibet, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Yunnan. 05 Oil and gas pipe networks: Construct the China-Kazakhstan crude oil pipeline (Phase 2), the China-Myanmar oil and gas pipeline (domestic section), the Central Asia natural gas pipeline (Phase 2), and the West-to-east Gas Transmission Lines 3 and 4. The total length of oil and gas transmission pipelines attains about 150,000 kilometers. Accelerate the construction of gas storage facilities. 06 Power grids: Accelerate the construction of outward power supply projects from large coal power, hydropower and wind power bases, and create some cross-regional power transmission channels using advanced technologies. Complete 330 kV or above power transmission lines of 200,000 kilometers. Carry out trials of intelligent power grid construction, improve substations to intelligent ones, extend the application of intelligent watt-hour meters, and construct electric vehicle charging facilities. -- The layout of crude oil processing capacity should be optimized to promote the integrated development of upstream and downstream industries. --Rural power supply project. Implement comprehensive grid transformation in the rural place where the grids are still old, and transform and upgrade the grid in the place where there is a lack of power supply capacity but a rapid growth of demand for electricity. --Build 1000 solar energy demonstration villages and 200 green energy counties. Construct 300 new rural hydropower electrification counties and new small hydropower installed capacity of 10 million kilowatts. --Rural biogas project. Build small and medium-large sized biogas service system for household biogas, to ensure that more than 50% of the appropriate users to biogas. --Renewable energy sources: Construct large-sized hydropower stations in key watersheds, such as those of the Jinsha, Yalong and Dadu Rivers, and commence the construction of hydropower projects with a total installed capacity of 120 million kW. Construct 6 onshore and 2 coastal and offshore large wind power bases, with an additional installed capacity of over 70 million kW. Construct solar energy power stations with a total installed capacity of over 5 million kW with focus on Tibet, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Yunnan. --Improve transport systems for coal, petroleum, iron ore and container, etc., and improve the modernity of coastal port groups. --Strengthen rural energy construction, continue to implement new rural hydropower electrification projects and strengthen implementations of fuel replacement by small hydropower constructions, and implement of a new round of rural power grid upgrade project.
Regional integration priorities: 
We will enhance the infrastructure and connection with the neighbouring countries and develop “special outward industries” and industrial bases[...]West; Guangxi will be a new “highland” for cooperation with ASEAN.
Investment
Energy sector investment priorities: 
Accelerate the reform of energy production and utilization mode: Promoting the development of diversified and clean energy sources; Optimizing the layout of energy development; Strengthening the construction of energy transmission channels; -- Promoting the development of diversified and clean energy sources: Strengthen the construction of grid-connection works. A key government priority is the further development of the country's ever-struggling power grid (30 percent of wind farms were not connected to grid by the end of 2009). State Grid's investment is reportedly to exceed RMB 17 billion during this period, on large-scale construction of a smart grid. Among seven strategic emerging industries, three are within energy and environment areas: " energy efficiency and environment", "new energy", and "new energy vehicles". -- For the new energy sector, China aims to develop advanced technology in nuclear, solar and wind sectors. -- For energy efficiency and environmental conservation sectors, focus will be on waste recycling and clean coal technologies. -- For energy vehicles, focus will be on battery cell technology and is aiming for an annual production of 1 million electric vehicles by 2015.
Governance
Coordination with regional energy associations: 
China should use the APEC as well as other international or sub-regional cooperation mechanisms and enhance regional cooperation with other countries and regions. South-South cooperation should be enhanced. --We will enhance the infrastructure and connection with the neighbouring countries and develop “special outward industries” and industrial bases[...]Guangxi will be a new “highland” for cooperation with ASEAN
Technology
Clean energy technology priorities: 
We will accelerate research, development and application of low carbon technologies and regulate GHG emitting sectors such as industry, construction, transportation and agriculture. --In the field of new energy industry, construct industrial bases for new-generation nuclear power equipment, large wind power generating sets and parts, new assemblies of efficient solar power generation and heat utilization, biomass energy conversion and utilization technologies, and intelligent power grid equipment, and implement exemplary large-scale application projects of marine wind power, solar power and biomass energy. --Nuclear power: accelerate the development of nuclear power in coastal provinces, promote nuclear power construction in central provinces steadily, and construct nuclear power projects with a total installed capacity of 40 million kW. [...]set up a major project for the construction of large-scale advanced pressurized water reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear power plant [...] --Carry out R&D demonstration of coal-based natural gas, coal-based liquid fuels and coal-based co-production orderly, and promote industrialization steadily.
Clean energy technology deployment: 
Iron and steel: Focus on the development of energy conservation and emission reduction technologies, such as energy management and control system, high-temperature and high-pressure dry coke quenching, integrated residual heat utilization and desulfurization of sintering flue gas. --Focus on the development of energy conservation and emission reduction technologies, such as energy management and control system, high-temperature and high-pressure dry coke quenching, integrated residual heat utilization and desulfurization of sintering flue gas.
Low-emission and cleaner coal technology: 
For energy efficiency and environmental conservation sectors, focus will be on waste recycling and clean coal technologies.Promoting the development of diversified and clean energy sources: Develop clean and efficient large-capacity coal-fired generating sets, giving priority to heat and power cogeneration units in large/medium cities and industrial parks, large coal-fired power stations near coal mines, and integrated coal gangue power stations.
Advanced fuel extraction technology: 
Strengthen the exploration and development of petroleum and natural gas resources, stabilize domestic petroleum output, and promote the rapid growth of natural gas output, and the development and utilization of unconventional oil and gas resources, such as coal-bed gas and shale gas.
Natural gas transportation technology: 
Make unified planning of natural gas import pipelines, LNG receiving stations, and cross-regional trunk gas transmission and distribution networks, and create a gas supply layout in which natural gas, coal-bed gas and coal-based gas are balanced.
R&D energy efficiency: 
New-energy automobile industry: Conduct R&D and large-scale commercialization demonstration projects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles, and promote industrialized application. --- We will accelerate research, development and application of low carbon technologies and regulate GHG emitting sectors such as industry, construction, transportation and agriculture. We will look into creating low carbon product standardisation, labelling and authentication systems, establish an effective system for calculating GHG emission statistics and gradually create a carbon emissions trading system. We will advance low carbon pilot projects. --In the field of new-energy automobile industry, conduct R&D and large-scale commercialization demonstration projects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles, and promote industrialized application.
R&D pollution abatement: 
We will accelerate research, development and application of low carbon technologies and regulate GHG emitting sectors such as industry, construction, transportation and agriculture. We will look into creating low carbon product standardisation, labelling and authentication systems, establish an effective system for calculating GHG emission statistics and gradually create a carbon emissions trading system. We will advance low carbon pilot projects.
Industrialization support: 
For energy conservation and environmental protection industries, implement major exemplary projects in energy conservation and environmental protection, and promote the industrialization of efficient energy conservation, advanced environmental protection and resource recycling. --[...]Carry out R&D demonstration of coal-based natural gas, coal-based liquid fuels and coal-based co-production orderly, and promote industrialization steadily.[...] ----Support enterprises to improve equipment level, optimize production processes, accelerate the elimination of backward technologies and equipment, and improve the overall level of integrated utilization of energy resources.