THE 13TH FIVE-YEAR PLAN
FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Central Compilation & Translation Press
Compilation and Translation Bureau,
Central Committee of the Communist Party of China Beijing, China
Central Compilation & Translation Press
PART I GUIDING THINKING, MAJOR OBJECTIVES, AND DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY
Chapter 1 The Development Environment Chapter 2 The Guiding Thinking
Chapter 3 Major Objectives
Chapter 4 The Development Philosophy Chapter 5 The Main Thread of Development
PART II INNOVATION-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 6 Ensure Innovation in Science and Technology Takes a Leading Role Chapter 7 Encourage Public Startups and Innovations
Chapter 8 Establish Innovation Promoting Institutions and Mechanisms Chapter 9 Prioritize Human Resource Development
PART III NEW SYSTEMS FOR DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 10 Open Up New Space for Drivers of Development Chapter 11 Uphold and Improve China’s Basic Economic System Chapter 12 Establish a Modern Property Rights System
Chapter 13 Improve the Modern Market System
Chapter 14 Deepen Reform of the Administrative System Chapter 15 Accelerate Reform of the Fiscal and Tax Systems Chapter 16 Accelerate Financial Reform
Chapter 17 Innovate and Improve Macroeconomic Regulation
PART IV AGRICULTURAL MODERNIZATION
Chapter 18 Strengthen Capacity for Ensuring Safety of Agricultural Products Chapter 19 Establish a Modern Agricultural Operations System
Chapter 20 Improve Technology and Equipment and Increase Information Technology Application in Agriculture
Chapter 21 Improve Systems for Providing Support and Protection for Agriculture
PART V AN OPTIMIZED MODERN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM
Chapter 22 Develop China into a Manufacturing Powerhouse Chapter 23 Develop Strategic Emerging Industries
Chapter 24 Increase Quality and Efficiency within the Service Sector
PART VI THE CYBER ECONOMY
Chapter 25 Build Ubiquitous, Efficient Information Networks Chapter 26 Develop Modern Internet Industries
Chapter 27 Implement the National Big Data Strategy Chapter 28 Strengthen Information Security
PART VII MODERN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORKS
Chapter 29 Develop Better Modern Comprehensive Transportation Systems Chapter 30 Build a Modern Energy System
Chapter 31 Strengthen Water Security
PART VIII NEW URBANIZATION
Chapter 32 Promote Urban Residency for People with Rural Household Registration Living in Urban Areas
Chapter 33 Improve the Distribution and Layout of Urban Areas Chapter 34 Develop Harmonious and Pleasant Cities
Chapter 35 Improve the Housing Supply System
Chapter 36 Promote Coordinated Urban and Rural Development
PART IX DEVELOPMENT COORDINATED BETWEEN REGIONS
Chapter 37 Implement the Master Strategy for Regional Development Chapter 38 Promote the Integration of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Chapter 39 Develop the Yangtze Economic Belt
Chapter 40 Support the Development of Special Regions Chapter 41 Widen Space for the Blue Economy
PART X ECOSYSTEMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Chapter 42 Accelerate the Development of Functional Zones Chapter 43 Promote Economical and Intensive Resource Use Chapter 44 Step Up Comprehensive Environmental Governance Chapter 45 Intensify Ecological Conservation and Restoration Chapter 46 Respond to Global Climate Change
Chapter 47 Improve Mechanisms for Ensuring Ecological Security Chapter 48 Develop Green and Environmentally Friendly Industries PART XI ALL-AROUND OPENING UP
Chapter 49 Improve the Strategy for Opening Up Chapter 50 Improve the New System of Opening Up
Chapter 51 Move Forward with the Belt and Road Initiative Chapter 52 Participate in Global Economic Governance
Chapter 53 Assume International Responsibilities and Obligations
PART XII DEEPER COOPERATION BETWEEN THE MAINLAND, HONG KONG, MACAO, AND TAIWAN
Chapter 54 Support Long-Term Prosperity, Stability, and Development in Hong Kong and Macao
Chapter 55 Promote Peaceful Cross-Straits Relations and China’s Reunification
PART XIII THE FIGHT AGAINST POVERTY
Chapter 56 Take Targeted Poverty Reduction Measures Chapter 57 Support Accelerated Development of Poor Areas Chapter 58 Improve Poverty Reduction Systems
PART XIV BETTER EDUCATION AND HEALTH FOR ALL CITIZENS
Chapter 59 Modernize Education Chapter 60 Promote a Healthy China
PART XV SUPPORT FOR PUBLIC WELLBEING
Chapter 61 Provide More Public Services Chapter 62 Give High Priority to Employment Chapter 63 Bridge the Income Gap
Chapter 64 Carry Out Social Security Reform Chapter 65 Respond to Population Aging
Chapter 66 Safeguard the Basic Rights and Interests of Women, Minors, and Persons with Disabilities
PART XVI SOCIALIST CULTURAL AND ETHICAL PROGRESS
Chapter 67 Strengthen Civic Development
Chapter 68 Provide More Cultural Products and Services Chapter 69 Further Open Up the Cultural Sector
PART XVII BETTER AND MORE INNOVATIVE SOCIAL GOVERNANCE
Chapter 70 Improve the Social Governance System Chapter 71 Improve the Social Credibility System Chapter 72 Improve Public Security Systems Chapter 73 Develop the National Security System
PART XVIII SOCIALIST DEMOCRACY AND RULE OF LAW
Chapter 74 Develop Socialist Democracy Chapter 75 Build a Rule of Law China
Chapter 76 Strengthen Party Conduct, Government Integrity, and the Fight against Corruption
PART XIX COORDINATED ECONOMIC AND DEFENSE DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 77 Pursue Comprehensive Development of Defense and the Armed Forces Chapter 78 Integrate Military and Civilian Development
PART XX IMPLEMENTATION
Chapter 79 Make Use of the Party’s Role as the Core Leadership Chapter 80 Ensure that Everyone Works Together on Implementation
Formulated on the basis of the Recommendations of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) for the 13th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China (2016–2020), the 13th Five-Year Plan sets forth China’s strategic intentions and defines its major objectives, tasks, and measures for economic and social development. This plan is to serve as a guide to action for market entities, an important basis for government in performing its duties, and a common vision to be shared among the people of China.
GUIDING THINKING, MAJOR OBJECTIVES, AND DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY
The period covered by the 13th Five-Year Plan will be decisive for finishing building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. We must implement the strategic plans and policies of the CPC Central Committee, achieve an accurate understanding of profound changes in domestic and international environments and circumstances faced by China in its development efforts, proactively adapt to, understand, and guide the new normal in economic development, and comprehensively advance innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development so as to ensure that a moderately prosperous society is established in all respects.
Chapter 1 The Development Environment
The period covered by the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011–2015) was an extraordinary time for China’s development. In the face of a complex international environment and challenging domestic tasks related to carrying out reform, pursuing development, and ensuring stability, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council united with and led the people of China in exerting themselves and pushing forward with a pioneering spirit. As a result, significant economic and social achievements were made, and the main tasks and targets set out in the 12th Five-Year Plan were fulfilled.
Responding proactively to the aftermath of the global financial crisis and other major risks and challenges, and working to adapt to the new normal in economic development, we continued to improve and develop new methods of macroeconomic regulation, and helped bring about an improved economic structure, a shift in the drivers of growth, and faster transformation of the growth model.
China’s economy sustained rapid growth, enabling the country to comfortably maintain its position as the world’s second-largest economy and increase its per capita gross domestic product (GDP) to 49,351 yuan (US$7,924) in 2015.
Major progress was achieved in economic structural adjustment. Agriculture grew steadily. The value-added of the tertiary industry accounted for a larger share of GDP than that of the secondary industry. Consumer spending continued to rise. Disparity between rural and urban areas and between regions has been narrowing. By 2015 permanent urban residents accounted for 56.1% of the total population. Infrastructure improved markedly in all respects. The development of high-tech industries and strategic emerging industries picked up speed. A number of world-class advances were achieved in science and technology.
The public service system has been basically established and coverage has continued to expand. Education levels rose remarkably. Public health saw a noticeable improvement. Job creation was sustained. The number of people affected by poverty was reduced by a significant margin. Standards of living and quality of life continued to improve.
Further progress has been made in ecological improvement. Functional zoning has been gradually refined, major pollutant emissions have been continuously reduced, and energy conservation and environmental protection have been significantly strengthened.
Great energy has been channeled into deepening every area of reform. The economic system has continued to improve, people’s democracy has continued to expand, and China has embarked on a new leg of the journey toward more law-based governance.
Significant progress has been achieved in China’s all-around diplomacy, and the country’s international standing has seen a notable improvement. As China opens wider to the rest of the world, it has become the world’s largest trader in goods and a major outward investor. The RMB has been included in the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights basket.
The Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the nation and the core socialist values have gained a firm place in people’s hearts. China’s soft power has continued to become stronger. Notable achievements have been made in military reform with Chinese characteristics, and new steps have been taken to strengthen and revitalize the armed forces. A new phase has begun in the all-around strengthening of Party self-governance, and significant headway has been made in improving Party conduct and building a clean government. New heights have been reached in China’s economic strength, scientific and technological capabilities, defense capabilities, and international influence.
Of particular importance, since the 18th National Party Congress, the Central Committee headed by General Secretary Xi Jinping has remained firmly committed to upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, has been bold in putting ideas into practice and adept at making innovations, and has developed a deeper understanding of the laws related to Communist Party governance and the development of socialism and human society. In so doing, it has developed new concepts and strategies for the governance of China, which will serve as theoretical guidance and a guide to action as we deepen reform and opening up and accelerate socialist modernization under the new historical conditions.
Fulfillment of the Main Target of the 12th Five-Year Plan
Indicator Target Fulfillment
2015 5-year average [5-year cumulative total]
2015 5-year average [5-year cumulative total]
• Economic development
1. GDP (trillions of yuan) n/a 7% 67.7 7.8%
2. Value-added of the service sector (% of GDP) 47 n/a 50.5 n/a
3. Permanent urban residents (%) 51.5 n/a 56.1 n/a
• Science, technology, and education
4. Nine-year compulsory education 93 n/a 93 n/a completion rate (%)
5. Senior secondary education gross enrollment rate (%) 87 n/a 87 n/a
6. Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) 2.2 n/a 2.1 n/a
7. Patents per 10,000 people 3.3 n/a 6.3 n/a
• Resources and the environment
8. Arable land (millions of hectares) 121.2 n/a 124.3 n/a
9. Water use reduction per unit of industrial value- added (%) n/a  n/a 
10. Agricultural irrigation efficiency 0.53 n/a 0.532 n/a
11. Non-fossil energy (% of primary energy consumption) 11.4 n/a 12 n/a
12. Energy consumption reduction per unit of GDP (%) n/a  n/a [18.2]
13. CO2 emissions reduction per unit of GDP (%) n/a  n/a 
14. Aggregate major pollutant emissions reduction (%)
Chemical oxygen demand
Sulfur dioxide Ammonia nitrogen Nitrogen oxide n/a
15. Forest growth Forest coverage (%) Forest growing stock 21.66
[...] (billions of m3)
• Living standards
16. Urban disposable income per capita (yuan) n/a >7% n/a 7.7%
17. Rural net income per capita (yuan) n/a >7% n/a 9.6%
18. Registered urban unemployment rate (%) <5 n/a 4.05 n/a
19. New urban employment (millions of people) n/a  n/a [64.31]
20. Urban participants in the basic pension plan (millions of people) 357 n/a 377 n/a
21. Basic state health insurance coverage (%) n/a  n/a [>3]
22. Government- subsidized urban housing (millions of units) n/a  n/a [40.13]
23. Total population (billions of people) <1.390 n/a 1.375 n/a
24. Average life expectancy (years) 74.5 n/a 76.34 n/a
1. GDP and personal income growth are computed using comparable prices, while absolute figures are computed using current prices.
2. The 2015 figure for arable land has been updated according to data from the second national land survey.
3. Figures in square brackets are five-year cumulative totals.
The period covered by the 13th Five-Year Plan will present even more complex domestic and international environments for China’s development.
On the international front, peace and development remain the main themes of our times. Global multipolarization, economic globalization, cultural diversification, and the development of information societies are all deepening trends. The shocks of the
global financial crisis and its profound impact will continue to be felt for a considerable time to come, and the world economy is experiencing anemic growth and zigzag recovery in the midst of extensive adjustments. The growth prospects and macro policy orientations of the major economies are mixed, financial markets around the world are unstable, commodity prices are fluctuating significantly, global trade has been sluggish, trade protectionism is gaining ground, and emerging economies are confronted by much greater risks and difficulties. New revolutions are almost upon us in technology and industry, and major adjustments are taking place in the international energy landscape. The global governance system is undergoing far-reaching changes. Developing countries are continuing to gain collective strength, gradually evening out the global balance of power. International investment and trade rules are undergoing restructuring at a faster pace, and the multilateral trading system is facing the challenge of regional high- standard free trade regimes. Geopolitical competition is growing fiercer in some regions, traditional and non-traditional security threats have become intertwined, and international relations are more complicated than ever. With factors causing instability and uncertainty in China’s external environment growing markedly, greater risks and challenges will be faced in our country’s development.
On the domestic front, the fundamentals for long-term economic growth have not changed, and economic development prospects are as broad as ever. However, the need has become more pressing to improve the quality and efficiency of growth and transform and upgrade the economy. As the economy is experiencing a new normal of growth, there is a clearer trend toward a more advanced form of growth, improved divisions of labor, and a more rational structure. With the structure of consumption being more rapidly upgraded, broad market space, a strong material foundation, a complete industrial structure, an ample supply of funds, and abundant human capital, along with the cumulative effects of innovation that are beginning to show, our overall strengths are still notable. A new style of industrialization, information technology adoption, urbanization, and agricultural modernization are experiencing deeper development, new drivers of growth are in the making, and new areas, poles, and belts of growth are becoming stronger. All-around efforts to deepen reform and make progress in the law-based governance of the country are unleashing new dynamism and bringing new vitality.
At the same time, we must be soberly aware that China’s development model is inefficient; uneven, uncoordinated, and unsustainable development continues to be a prominent problem; the change of pace in economic growth, structural adjustments, and the transformation of the drivers of growth present interwoven problems; and we face a host of challenges, such as ensuring steady growth, carrying out structural adjustments, guarding against risks, and bringing benefit to the people. Weak effective demand exists alongside insufficient effective supply; structural problems are becoming more evident; traditional comparative strengths are growing less effective; the capacity for innovation is not strong enough; downward pressure on the economy is growing; imbalances between government revenue and expenditures have become more marked, and latent risks are mounting in the financial sector. The foundations of agriculture are still weak, overcapacity is a serious problem in certain sectors, commodity housing inventory is high, corporate profits are sliding, and debt continues to grow. Development is uneven between rural and urban areas and between regions, spatial development is inefficient, resource constraints grow increasingly tight, and the continuing trend toward further ecological and environmental degradation is yet to be fundamentally reversed. The provision of basic public services remains inadequate, income gaps are wide, population aging is accelerating, and the task of eradicating poverty is formidable. Major workplace accidents occur frequently, factors that affect social stability are growing, there is room for improvement in the overall caliber of the population and the level of civility in society, the level of rule of law has yet to be raised, and it is becoming tougher to ensure social harmony and stability.
All things considered, it becomes evident that China remains in an important period of strategic opportunity for achieving significant development, while it also faces grave challenges posed by multiple problems and increasing risks and dangers. In response, we will develop a proper understanding of the deep changes in the implications of and conditions presented by this period. We will become more mindful of the difficulties ahead, develop a stronger sense of responsibility, and prepare ourselves for worst-case scenarios. We will respect both objective laws and China’s national context, and work proactively to adapt to, understand, and guide the new normal. We will follow the principles of socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics, release and develop productive forces, continue in the direction of reform to develop the socialist market economy, mobilize the initiative of all sides, develop a firmer sense of confidence, face difficulties head-on, and continue to focus our strength on running our own affairs well. We will strive to make breakthroughs in making structural improvements, bolstering the drivers of growth, tackling problems, and strengthening areas of weakness; transform the growth model; improve the quality and efficiency of development; take care to avoid falling into the middle income trap; and constantly open up new horizons for development.
Chapter 2 The Guiding Thinking
We will hold high the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics; fully implement the guiding principles from the CPC’s 18th National Congress, and from the third, fourth, and fifth plenary sessions of the 18th CPC Central Committee; follow the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development; and put into practice the guiding principles from General Secretary Xi Jinping’s major addresses. We will remain dedicated to the strategy of finishing building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, deepening all areas of reform, fully advancing the law-based governance of China, and strengthening every element of Party self-governance; continue to give top priority to development; and embrace and put into effect the philosophy of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development. We will make it our central task to improve the quality and efficiency of development and make supply-side structural reform the main thread of our work. We will expand effective supply and meet effective demand, and move faster to create systems, mechanisms, and growth models that can guide the new normal in economic development. We will maintain strategic focus, seek progress while working to keep performance stable, and coordinate efforts to achieve economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress and make headway in Party building so as to ensure the completion of the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects within the set time frame, and to put in place firmer foundations for achieving the second of the Two Centenary Goals1 and the Chinese Dream of rejuvenating the nation.
To that end, we must honor the following principles:
• Uphold the principal position of the people
The people are the basic force behind development, and realizing, safeguarding, and developing the fundamental interests of the largest possible majority of people is the fundamental purpose of development. We must remain dedicated to a people- centered notion of development, make improving wellbeing and promoting people’s well-rounded development the starting point and ultimate goal of development, develop people’s democracy, safeguard social equity and justice, protect people’s rights
to equal participation and equal development, and give full rein to their enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity.
1 To finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by the time the CPC celebrates its centenary in 2021 and to turn the People’s Republic of China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, and harmonious by the time it celebrates its centenary in 2049.
• Remain committed to an appropriate development approach
Development is of paramount importance but must be carried out in an appropriate way. China is still in the primary stage of socialism and will remain so for a long time to come; the basic national context and main social problems also remain unchanged. This must be kept in mind when planning for development. We need to continue to treat economic development as central, remain cognizant of the realities of China’s situation, grasp any new characteristics of development, step up structural reform, and speed up transformation of the growth model to achieve higher quality, more efficient, more equitable, and more sustainable development.
• Continue to deepen reform
Reform is a powerful force for development. In line with the chief objectives of improving and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics and modernizing the country’s governance system and capacity for governance, we need to improve the systems by which the market plays the decisive role in resource allocation and the government plays a more effective role. Placing particular emphasis on economic structural reform, we need to work more quickly to improve institutions and mechanisms in every area and remove all systemic barriers to effective development so as to provide sustained impetus for development.
• Maintain commitment to the law-based governance of China
The rule of law is a reliable guarantee for development. We need to maintain our resolve in continuing on the path toward socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics; work faster to establish a Chinese-style socialist rule of law system; build a socialist rule of law country; make progress in ensuring that a well-conceived approach is applied to developing legislation, the law is strictly enforced, justice is administered impartially, and everyone abides by the law; and move more quickly to build a rule of law economy and a rule of law society, bringing economic and social development in line with the rule of law.
• Keep in mind both the domestic and international situations
All-around opening up is imperative to development. We need to carry out development with the door open. While focusing on domestic issues and making full use of domestic resource-related strengths and market and institutional advantages, we should also keep in mind the connectivity between the domestic and the world economies and respond proactively to changes in the external environment so as to make better use of both domestic and international markets and resources, and ensure benefit and development for all.
• Uphold leadership by the CPC
The Party’s leadership is the greatest strength of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and provides the fundamental political guarantee for sustained, healthy economic and social development. We need to implement the requirements related to comprehensively strengthening Party self-governance, continuously strengthen the Party’s creativity, cohesiveness, and dynamism, and continuously improve its capacity for and performance in governance so as to ensure the best course of navigation for our country’s development as it presses ahead through the waves.
Chapter 3 Major Objectives
In line with the new goals for finishing building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, the major objectives for economic and social development for the next five years are as follows:
• Maintain a medium-high rate of growth
While working to achieve more balanced, inclusive, and sustainable development, we need to ensure that China’s 2010 GDP and per capita personal income double by 2020, that major economic indicators are balanced, and that the quality and efficiency of development is significantly improved. Production will move toward the medium-high end, significant progress will be made in modernizing agriculture, information technology will be further integrated into industrialization, advanced manufacturing and strategic emerging industries will develop more rapidly, new industries and new forms of business will keep growing, and the service sector will come to account for a greater proportion of GDP.
• Achieve significant results ininnovation-driven development
We will pursue innovation-driven development, ensure that business startups and innovation flourish, and see that total factor productivity is markedly improved. Science and technology will become more deeply embedded in the economy, the ingredients needed for innovation will be allocated to greater effect, major breakthroughs will be made in core technologies in key sectors, and China’s capacity for innovation will see an all-around improvement. Fulfillment of these goals will help China become a talent-rich country of innovation.
• Further coordinate development
The contribution of consumption to economic growth will continue to grow, and investment efficiency and corporate performance will be significantly improved. The quality of urbanization will improve notably, and the proportion of those living in urban areas granted urban residency will increase more quickly. A new pattern of coordinated development among regions will begin to take shape, and the layout of development spaces will be improved. China will continue to be opened up more deeply and broadly to the outside world, and it will also continue to improve its ability to allocate resources globally. We will constantly refine our mix of imports and exports, and will maintain a basic balance in international payments.
• Improve standards of living and quality of life
Public service systems related to employment, education, culture, sports, social security, healthcare, and housing will be improved, with access to basic public services becoming increasingly equitable. Important progress will be made in modernizing education, and the average number of years of education completed by the working-age population will be significantly increased. The economy will operate near full employment, the income gap will be narrowed, and the proportion of middle-income earners will be increased. All rural residents falling below China’s current poverty line will be able to lift themselves out of poverty, all poor counties will be able to rid themselves of poverty, and poverty alleviation will be achieved in all regions.
• Improve the overall caliberof the population and the level of civility in society
The Chinese Dream and the core socialist values will gain a firmer place in people’s hearts. We will broadly advocate patriotism, collectivism, and socialism. People should work to improve themselves, cultivate a sense of virtue, act with honesty, and help each other out. We will work toward a significant improvement in the intellectual, moral, scientific, cultural, and health standards of our citizens. Awareness of the rule of law will continue to be strengthened throughout society. We will build up the basic framework of the public cultural service system, and see that the cultural sector becomes a pillar of the economy. We will continue to expand the influence of Chinese culture.
• Achieve an overall improvement in the quality of th eenvironment and ecosystems
Our modes of production and ways of life will become more eco- friendly and low-carbon. We will extract and use energy and resources with much greater efficiency. Aggregate energy and water consumption, the total amount of land used for construction, and aggregate carbon emissions will be effectively controlled, and aggregate emissions of major pollutants will be significantly reduced. We will basically complete functional zoning and the building of protective barriers for eco-security.
• Ensure all institutions become more mature and better established
We will make major progress in modernizing China’s governance system and capacity for governance, with frameworks for basic institutions being established in all areas. We will improve people’s democracy, basically complete the establishment of a rule of law government, and achieve a marked improvement in the credibility of the judiciary. Human rights will be protected and property rights will be safeguarded. The new systems needed for an open economy will have basically taken shape. We will improve the Chinese-style modern military system and further institutionalize Party building.
Main Economic and Social Development Indicators for the 13th Five-Year Plan Period
2020 5-year average [5-year
Type of Indicator
• Economic development
1. GDP (trillions of yuan) 67.7 >92.7 >6.5%
2. Overall labor productivity (10,000 yuan per employed person) 8.7 >12 >6.6%
Urbanizati on Permanent urban residents (%) 56.1 60 [3.9]
Registered urban residents (%) 39.9 45 [5.1]
4. Value-added of the service sector (% of GDP) 50.5 56 [5.5]
• Innovation-driven development
5. Research and 2.1 2.5 [0.4] Anticipatory development expenditure (% of GDP)
6. Patents per 10,000 people 6.3 12 [5.7]
7. Contribution of scientific and technological advances to economic growth (%) 55.3 60 [4.7]
8. Internet access Households wit h fixe d broadband (%)
Mobile broadband users (%)
• Wellbeing of the people
9. Growth in disposable income per capita (%) n/a n/a >6.5 Anticipatory
10. Average length of education received by the working-age population (years) 10.23 10.8 [0.57] Obligatory
11. New urban employment (millions of people) n/a n/a [>50] Anticipatory
12. Rural population lifted out of poverty (millions of people) n/a n/a [55.75] Obligatory
13. Basic old-age insurance coverage (%) 82 90  Anticipatory
14. Rebuilt housing in rundown urban areas (millions of units) n/a n/a  Obligatory
15. Average life expectancy (years) n/a n/a  Anticipatory
• Resources and the environment
16. Arable land (millions of hectares) 124.3 124.3 
17. Increase in land newly designated for construction (millions of hectares) n/a n/a [<2.17]
18. Water use reduction per 10,000 yuan of GDP (%) n/a n/a 
19. Energy consumption n/a n/a  reduction per unit of GDP (%)
20. Non-fossil energy (% of primary energy consumption) 12 15 
21. CO2 emissions reduction per unit of GDP (%) n/a n/a 
22. Forest growth Forest coverage (%) 21.66 23.04 [1.38]
Forest growing stock (billions of m3) 15.1 16.5 [1.4]
23. Air quality Days of good or excellent 76.7 >80 n/a air quality in cities at and above the prefectural level (% of the year)
Reduction in PM2.5 intensity in cities at and above the prefectural level missing the target (%) n/a n/a 
24. Surface water quality Grade III or better (%) 66 >70 n/a
Worse than Grade V (%) 9.7 <5 n/a
Aggregate major pollutant emissions reduction (%) Chemical oxygen demand Ammonia nitrogen Sulfur dioxide Nitrogen
Chapter 4 The Development Philosophy
In order to achieve the objectives for the 13th Five-Year Plan period, resolve difficulties encountered during development, and cultivate strengths for further development, we need to firmly establish and put into practice a new philosophy of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development.
Innovation must be placed at the heart of China’s development and advanced in every field, from theory to institutions, science, technology, and culture. Innovation should permeate the work of the Party and the country and become an inherent part of society.
• Coordination: an integral quality of sustained and healthy development
While keeping firmly in mind the overall strategy for developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, we need to properly handle relationships between major areas of development, focusing on advancing coordinated development between rural and urban areas, between different regions, and between economic and social development, and advancing the synchronized development of a new style of industrialization, information technology adoption, urbanization, and agricultural modernization. While increasing China’s hard power, we need also to improve its soft power, striving constantly to make development more comprehensive.
• Green: both a necessary condition for ensuring lasting development and an important way in which people can work to pursue a better life
We need to uphold the fundamental state policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment as we pursue sustainable development, and keep to a civilized development path that ensures increased levels of production, better living standards, and sound ecosystems. We will move faster to build a resource-conserving, environmentally friendly society and bring about a new model of modernization whereby humankind develops in harmony with nature. We will move forward with building a Beautiful China and make new contributions toward ensuring global eco- security.
In adapting to China’s ever-deepening integration into the world economy, we will pursue a mutually beneficial strategy of opening up, coordinate the role of domestic and foreign demand in stimulating growth, balance imports and exports, stress the importance of both bringing in and going global, and work simultaneously to attract foreign investment, technology, and talent. We will achieve a higher level of openness within our economy, participate actively in global economic governance and the global supply of public goods, seek a greater say in the institutions for global economic governance, and look to build more international communities of interests.
• Sharing: the essence of Chinese-style socialism
We must ensure that development is for the people, that it is reliant on the people, and that its fruits are shared by the people. We will improve our institutions to enable the people to have a greater sense of benefit as they contribute to development and share in its fruits, thus strengthening the impetus for development, increasing unity among the people, and helping them move steadily toward common prosperity.
The pursuit of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development represents a profound change in China’s development effort. This new development philosophy constitutes a joint body of parts internally linked together and an embodiment of our country’s thinking, direction, and the focus of its efforts related to development during the 13th Five-Year Plan period and beyond; it must permeate all areas of economic and social development over the coming five years.
Chapter 5 The Main Thread of Development
To put the new development philosophy into practice and adapt to, understand, and guide the new normal in economic development, at the same time as working to achieve an appropriate expansion of aggregate demand, we must also strive to carry out supply-side structural reform so that our supply is able to satisfy the people’s ever-growing, constantly upgrading, and increasingly individualized material, cultural, ecological, and environmental needs. We must use reform to push forward with structural adjustment; intensify market-oriented reform in key sectors; make adjustments to distorted policies and institutions; improve the market environment and mechanisms to encourage fair competition and survival of the fittest; do everything possible to boost vitality at the micro level; improve factor allocation; move forward in industrial structural upgrading; expand effective supply and medium- and high-end supply; make the structure of supply more adaptive and flexible; and improve total factor productivity. Aiming at improving the quality and efficiency of the supply system, we must ensure that macro-level policy maintains economic stability, industrial policy is targeted, micro-level policy injects dynamism into the economy, reform policy delivers results, and social policy sees that basic needs are met; address overcapacity, reduce inventory, deleverage, lower costs, and bolster areas of weakness; accelerate the cultivation of new drivers of growth; transform and upgrade traditional comparative strengths; fortify the foundations of the real economy; and improve the overall level of productive forces.
With innovation as the basis from which to pursue development, we will give a central role to innovation in science and technology and a supporting role to the development of talent, closely integrating scientific and technological innovation with business startups and innovation by the general public in order to achieve leading-edge development that relies more on innovation as its driver and offers greater incentives for first innovators.
Chapter 6 Ensure Innovation in Science and Technology Takes a Leading Role
We will see that scientific and technological innovation leads the way in all areas of innovation. We will strengthen basic research, bolster primary innovation, innovation based on the integration of existing technologies, and innovation based on import and assimilation, and improve China’s own capacity for innovation, so as to provide an inexhaustible driving force for economic and social development.
Breakthroughs in Strategic and Frontier Fields
Our work will be strategy-driven and frontier-oriented, will support basic research and research on key general-purpose technologies which have a bearing on overall development, and will attach greater importance to primary and disruptive innovation. We will stay focused on our objectives, give high priority to key areas, expedite the implementation of existing national science and technology programs, and launch a number of new science and technology programs. We will move faster to make breakthroughs in core technologies in fields such as next generation information and communications, new energy, new materials, aeronautics and astronautics, biomedicine, and smart manufacturing. We will strengthen the development of strategic high technologies in deep sea, deep Earth, deep space, deep blue (i.e. information technology), and other fields. We will design programs aimed at finding systematic technological solutions to addressing bottlenecks in modern agriculture, urbanization, environmental governance, health care, elderly care, and public services. We will strengthen basic and frontier scientific research on the evolution of the universe, the structure of matter, the origin of life, the brain and cognition, and so on. We will actively propose and take the lead in organizing international Big Science programs and projects and establish cooperative platforms for international innovation.
A Better System for Organizing Innovation
We will make clear the functions and roles of different types of entities involved in innovation and establish an innovation network that integrates the efforts of government, enterprises, universities, research institutes, and end-users. We will strengthen the position of enterprises as principal entities for innovation as well as the leading role of enterprises in innovation, encourage them to conduct basic and frontier research, implement the 100 Most Innovative Enterprises initiative, develop innovative and internationally competitive enterprises, and support the growth of small and medium high-tech enterprises. We will integrate the development of science and education, encourage institutions of higher learning, vocational colleges, and research institutes to participate fully in the development of a national innovation system, and support high-quality universities and research institutes in building comprehensive, interdisciplinary research teams. When it comes to developing major key programs, we will leverage the strengths of the new system of nationwide support under the market economy. We will put into effect national technological innovation programs, establish industry associations for technological innovation, develop new types of market- oriented research institutes, and give impetus to collaborative innovation across fields and industries.
Section 3 Infrastructure for Innovation
With our sights set on the world’s cutting edge of science and technology, we will be guided by China’s national objectives and strategic needs in developing top- quality national laboratories. We will work faster to develop national science and technology infrastructure for research on energy, the life sciences, Earth system science and environmental science, materials science, particle physics and nuclear physics, space and astronomy, and engineering technology, and for research in certain interdisciplinary fields of study, and make use of existing advanced facilities to develop comprehensive national science centers. Enterprises, universities, and research institutes will be entrusted with building national technological innovation centers and we will support the development of corporate technology centers. We will give impetus to the open sharing of research infrastructure and innovation resources by institutions of higher learning and research institutes.
Regional Innovation Centers
We will guide the flow and grouping together of innovative factors and create trans-regional innovation networks. We will use major cities with strong concentrations of institutions of higher learning and research institutes, national innovation demonstration areas, and national high- tech industry development parks to develop innovative provinces, cities, and regional innovation centers that can greatly facilitate the development of their surrounding areas. Systematic steps will be taken to carry out pilot reforms for comprehensive innovation. We will support Beijing and Shanghai in developing internationally influential centers of scientific and technological innovation.
Chapter 7 Encourage Public Startups and Innovations
We will integrate efforts to see that more people start businesses and make innovations in all areas of development and encourage different types of entities to develop new technologies, products, forms of business, and models, creating new drivers of development.
Public Service Platforms
We will put into effect an action plan to see that more people start businesses and make innovations, encourage the development of low-cost, convenient, and open service platforms for the public as well as micro, small, and medium enterprises, and create a number of business startup and innovation demonstration centers and cities. We will channel greater energy into integrating information resources and make patent information resources and research centers openly accessible to businesses. We will encourage large enterprises to establish technology transfer and service platforms, providing technological support to those who are starting up in business. We will improve services for fostering business startups and develop open service providers combining business startup services with venture capital investment and online with offline services. We will make better use of government venture capital guide funds.
Crowd Innovation, Sourcing, Support, and Funding
We will make use of the internet to help business startups and innovators become better connected to market resources and more responsive to public demand. We will advance crowd innovation based on specialized spaces and online platforms as well as within enterprises, and improve innovation resource sharing. We will promote research crowdsourcing, development crowdsourcing, and creativity crowdsourcing as well as the crowdsourcing of manufacturing operations and maintenance services, knowledge, content, and consumer services to give impetus to public participation in the division of labor in online production and distribution. We will promote the development of public crowd support, shared crowd support, and mutual crowd support. We will improve supervision and oversight systems to ensure the well- regulated development of rewards crowdfunding, equity crowdfunding, and online lending.
Chapter 8 Establish Innovation Promoting Institutions and Mechanisms
We will remove institutional barriers to innovation and the commercialization of the results of innovation, improve relevant policies, and develop systems and mechanisms that help to unleash creativity, ensure efficient application of the outcomes of innovation, and fully reward innovation.
Reform of the Science and Technology Management System
In honoring the nature of scientific research, we will bring about a shift in the role of government away from research and development management toward the provision of innovation services. We will reform the management system for research expenditures, deepen reform of the management of central government funded science and technology programs, and improve the mechanisms for formulating and executing science and technology programs and projects. We will establish a unified science and technology management platform and improve mechanisms for managing science and technology reports, carrying out innovation surveys, and releasing and sharing resources. We will improve the consultation system for national decisions on science and technology and strengthen the say of entrepreneurs in the country’s decision-making systems related to innovation. We will ensure that enterprises play the leading role in market-oriented science and technology programs. Greater autonomy will be given to institutions of higher learning and research institutes, performance evaluation mechanisms that take medium- and long-term objectives into consideration will be put into effect, and more importance will be attached to the quality, originality, and contribution of research. We will empower leaders of innovation by seeing that they have more human, financial, and material resources at their disposal and more power to make decisions related to technology roadmaps. We will support exploratory work and allow for innovation over which consensus has not yet formed. We will deepen reform related to intellectual property rights and strengthen their judicial protection.
Mechanisms for Commercializing Science and Technology Advances and Sharing Profit
We will implement a plan to improve the commercialization of science and technology advances, fully delegate the rights to dispose, use, and profit from the results of innovation, ensure that researchers enjoy a greater share of the proceeds from the commercialization of their research achievements, and support them in working part- time or full-time toward the application of their scientific and technological results. We will establish financing models that cover the entire process of scientific and technological innovation from the experimental research stage to mid-stage trials and right through to production, and promote the assetization and industrial application of scientific and technological advances. We will adopt profit distribution policies oriented toward strengthening the value ascribed to knowledge, and we will strengthen stock-, stock option-, and dividend-based incentives for innovators.
An Inclusive System of Policy Support for Innovation
We will work to create a competitive market environment that incentivizes innovation; straighten out institutions, regulations, and industry standards that hold back innovation; expedite legislation in areas where innovation is weak; and strengthen oversight over compliance with industrial technology policies and standards. Government science and technology investment will be increased, with the focus on supporting basic and frontier research, public benefit-related research, and research related to key general-purpose technologies. To encourage businesses to increase their investment in research and development, we will implement additional tax deductions for their expenditures on research and development, expand the coverage of policies for the accelerated depreciation of fixed assets, and increase initial government purchasing and commissioning of innovative products. We will strengthen financial support for innovation and channel great energy into developing venture capital. We will give full play to the role of entrepreneurs, allow for the challenge that innovation poses toward entrenched interests, and protect entrepreneurs’ property rights and proceeds from innovation in accordance with the law.
Chapter 9 Prioritize Human Resource Development
We will treat talented people as the number one support for development, move faster to make innovations in the systems and policies for human resource development, create an internationally competitive personnel system, improve the caliber and structure of human resources, and work faster to make China one of the most talent competitive countries in the world.
Toward a Vast Pool of Talent
We will carry out strategic adjustments to the structure of skilled personnel, orienting our efforts particularly toward cultivating highly educated, professionally competent, cutting-edge, and urgently needed talent, and launch major talent development initiatives to identify, foster, and bring together science strategists, leading talent in the field of science and technology, talent working in the social sciences, outstanding entrepreneurs, and highly skilled personnel. We will train Party and government workers who have political integrity, professional competence, good managerial skills, and the ability to adopt an international perspective. We need to be adept at discovering, supporting, and giving full rein to the potential of outstanding young talent. We will promote reform of the models for cultivating innovative students at institutions of higher learning and guide efforts to closely link the talent cultivation chain with industry chains and innovation chains.
Section 2 Optimized Allocation of Talent
We will establish sound mechanisms for the free movement of talent, improve horizontal and vertical social mobility, and encourage the orderly, free movement of talent between different kinds of organizations and between different regions. We will improve policies on wages, medical care, professional titles, old-age pensions, and other incentives to encourage the flow of talent toward community-level organizations, the
central and western regions, and border and remote areas facing hardships. We will advance talent exchanges and pairing talent support between the eastern coastal region on the one hand and the central and western regions and the northeast and other old industrial regions on the other, and continue the talent training initiative whereby cities in the east provide pairing support to cities in the west.
A Favorable Environment for the Development of Talent
We will improve assessment, incentive, and service systems for skilled personnel, and foster a society in which all members are able to tap into their potential and talented young people are able to excel. We will use government investment to encourage efforts to develop and bring in new human resources. We will improve personnel assessment standards, making them performance and contribution oriented. We will work to ensure that outstanding individuals can participate in the division of profit on the basis of their knowledge, skills, management expertise, and other elements essential for innovation to take place and be rewarded according to their market value. We will strengthen both material and intellectual incentives for talented personnel and encourage in them a spirit of dedication. We will help to foster a society in which professionalism commands respect and foster a spirit of craftsmanship for the new era. We will adopt more proactive, more open, and more effective policies to bring in overseas talent, improve the permanent residence system for foreign nationals, and relax the criteria for highly skilled foreign nationals to gain permanent residency. We will move faster to provide more efficient and convenient entry, exit, and residence services for skilled foreign nationals coming to work in China. We will work to increase the number of international students in China, optimize the international student mix, and improve the mechanisms for supporting their training. We will cultivate outstanding talent and recommend them to international organizations, improve relevant supporting policies, and ensure that barriers are removed for them to return and take up positions in China.
§ Build teams of innovators in key fields;
§ Make focused efforts to support innovators and entrepreneurs working in science and technology and establish centers for others to learn from them to foster innovative talent.
2. Young talent development initiatives
§ Train the very best young talent in key disciplines and support their research;
§ Establish national young talent training centers for outstanding college students at quality research universities and research institutes for basic disciplines where the strengths of the respective university or institute lie;
§ Select the best talent from new senior secondary school and college graduates every year to participate in advanced training at first-class universities outside China and keep track of their progress.
3. Quality improvement programs for business executives
§ Train entrepreneurs who have a perspective on global needs, think strategically, and are innovative;
§ Train 10,000 business executives in strategic planning, capital operations, quality control, human resources management, finance, accounting, and law.
4. The Talent 1,000 Initiative and the Talent 10,000 Initiative
§ Attract science strategists and leading talent working in science and technology from overseas who have the capacity to engage in primary innovation, make breakthroughs in key technologies, develop high-tech industries, and drive the development of emerging disciplines;
§ Bring in approximately 10,000 high-caliber talented individuals from overseas to
make innovations or start businesses;
§ Select from within China and offer support to approximately 10,000 urgently needed, highly talented individuals.
5. Knowledge refresher programs for professional and technical personnel
§ Train one million high-caliber, urgently needed, and key professional and technical personnel each year;
§ Establish national continuing education centers, drawing on existing education institutions at universities, research institutes, and large enterprises.
6. National initiatives for the training of highly skilled personnel
§ Build master studios and 1,200 training centers for highly skilled personnel around the country to train ten million highly skilled workers.
Chapter 10 Open Up New Space for Drivers of Development
To strengthen new drivers of growth, we will follow the lead of market demand, make innovations in supply, improve the quality and efficiency of supply, stimulate and unleash effective demand, and create a highly efficient cycle of positive interplay between consumption and investment and of coordinated progress in demand and supply upgrading.
The Upgrade in the Structure of Consumption
To adapt to the more rapid upgrade in the structure of consumption, we will work to improve the environment in which the potential of consumption is unleashed, better satisfy and create consumer demand through improved and innovative supply, and constantly strengthen the fundamental role that consumption plays in fueling economic growth. We will channel great energy into expanding consumer spending by increasing consumer buying power, improving consumer expectations, and tapping rural potential for consumption. We will focus on expanding consumption of services to stimulate an upgrade in the structure of consumption, support new forms of consumption including information consumption, green consumption, fashion consumption, and quality consumption, and work steadily to promote spending on housing, automobiles, fitness, and elderly care. We will help develop new models of consumption, such as the integration of online and offline consumption. We will see that the quality of consumer goods is improved, strengthen the protection of consumer rights and interests, and give full play to the role of consumer associations in order to create convenient, worry-free environments for consumption. We will actively work to encourage those who are used to shopping overseas to buy domestic products. We will improve the distribution of duty-free shops across major tourist destination cities and develop international consumption centers.
Expanded Effective Investment
We will expand effective investment in response to effective demand, optimize supply structures, increase the return on investment, and see that investment plays a key role in sustaining growth and making structural adjustments. We will see that the principal role of nongovernmental investment is given more effective impetus, help to create free, fair investment and business environments to encourage the private and corporate sectors to invest and stimulate private capital and unlock its potential. We will give full play to the leveraging role of government investment by increasing investment in public goods and services, investment in human capital, and investment in upgrading the supply structure, strengthening weak areas in the building of a moderately prosperous society, coordinating development between rural and urban areas and between different regions, and bolstering sustainable development. We will launch investment programs that are of overall, strategic, and fundamental importance.
New Export Strengths
In light of changes in international demand, we will speed up the shift in the way we develop foreign trade, optimize the trade mix, and ensure exports better stimulate growth. We will move faster to make our export-intensive industries more internationally competitive in terms of their technology, standards, brand names, quality, and services; encourage the export of high-end equipment; and increase the use of high technology and the value-added of our exports. We will expand the export of services, improve after-sale maintenance and repair services, and coordinate the development of onshore and offshore outsourcing. We will increase support to the exports of micro, small, and medium enterprises.
NEW SYSTEMS FOR DEVELOPMENT
Giving play to the leading role of economic reform, we will achieve a proper balance in the relationship between government and market, make breakthroughs in the reform of key areas, and create new systems and mechanisms conducive to guiding the new normal in economic development.
Chapter 11 Uphold and Improve China’s Basic Economic System
We will ensure that public ownership is dominant and that economic entities under diverse forms of ownership develop side by side. We will remain dedicated to strengthening and developing the public sector of the economy while also encouraging, supporting, and guiding the development of the non-public sector. We will exercise oversight over economic entities under all forms of ownership in accordance with the law.
Reform of State-Owned Enterprises
We will remain firmly committed to ensuring that state-owned enterprises (SOEs) grow stronger, better, and bigger and work to see that a number of such enterprises develop their capacity for innovation and become internationally competitive, thereby injecting greater life into the state-owned sector, helping it exercise a greater level of influence and control over the economy, increasing its resilience against risk, and enabling it to contribute more effectively to accomplishing national strategic objectives. The main aims of commercial SOEs will be to vitalize the state-owned sector, improve the efficacy of state capital, and maintain or increase the value of state-owned assets. To achieve these aims, they should engage in lawful and autonomous production and business operations under the principle of the survival of the fittest. The main aims of public-benefit SOEs will be to ensure people’s wellbeing, serve society, and provide public goods and services. To achieve these aims, they should give greater play to market forces, introduce market mechanisms, and improve their assessments of cost control, product and service quality, performance, and capacity. We will move faster to ensure that SOEs introduce corporate and shareholding systems and improve their modern corporate structures and corporate governance. We will see that SOEs implement systems for employing management professionals and improve their differentiated salary systems and incentives for innovation. We will move more quickly to relieve SOEs of their traditional obligations to perform social functions and resolve other longstanding issues. We will also channel energy into reforming and developing state farms on reclaimed land.
The Management System for State-Owned Assets
We will tighten oversight over state-owned assets, focusing particularly on state capital, increase returns on state capital, and guard against the loss of state-owned assets. We will establish state capital investment and management companies through reorganization, allocate and utilize state capital more efficiently, and create effective platforms for its flow, reorganization, and structural redistribution. We will improve mechanisms for ensuring the rational flow of state capital, make strategic adjustments to its distribution, and encourage more state capital investment in industries and sectors vital to national security and the economy. We will establish lists of the regulatory powers and obligations of state-asset investors, make steady progress in bringing state- owned productive assets under unified oversight and supervision, and establish a budgetary management system for state capital operations across multiple levels covering all SOEs. Audits of all SOE state capital and of the performance of the economic responsibilities of all SOE leaders will be conducted.
A Mixed-Ownership Economy
We will support cross-ownership holdings and integration between state-owned, collective, non-public, and other types of capital. We will carry out reforms to diversify the shareholders of public sector enterprises. We will take steady steps in encouraging SOEs to develop mixed ownership and will begin the piloting and demonstration of reforms to introduce mixed ownership. We will involve non-state capital in the reform of SOEs and encourage the development of mixed-ownership enterprises in which the non-public sector holds a controlling share. We will encourage diverse forms of state capital participation in non-state-owned enterprises.
Support for the Non-Public Sector
We will better stimulate the dynamism and creativity of the non- public sector by ensuring it enjoys equal rights and opportunities and is subject to equal regulations. We will abolish all unreasonable regulations within the non-public sector, remove all hidden barriers to its development, and ensure that it has equal access to factors of production, participates in market competition on an equal footing, receives equal legal protection, and performs its social responsibilities alongside other sectors. We will encourage private enterprises to enter more sectors in accordance with the law.
Chapter 12 Establish a Modern Property Rights System
We will improve the modern system of property rights, ensuring clear ownership, well-defined rights and obligations, strict protection, and smooth transactions. We will increase the level of rule of law in the protection of property rights and protect the rights and interests of entities under all forms of ownership in accordance with the law. We will define the property rights of enterprises in accordance with the law and regulations, safeguard the right to profit from state capital investments as well as the decision-making rights of enterprises, and improve the property rights trading system for state-owned assets, ensuring that rules, processes, and outcomes are transparent. We will improve the functions of rural collective property rights and complete, in all rural areas nationwide, the determination, registration, and certification of contracted land rights, rural home land rights, rural housing property rights, and rights for collectively owned land designated for construction. We will improve methods for verifying membership of collective economic organizations and for realizing the ownership rights of the assets of collective entities, allowing the productive assets of collective economic organizations to be converted into shares and allotted to individual members. We will ensure that transfers of rural property rights are carried out in accordance with regulations, and will improve decision-making procedures for the disposition of the assets of rural collective organizations. We will implement an integrated registration system for immovable property across the board. We will accelerate the establishment of a property rights system for natural resource assets, determine the holders of such rights, and make innovations in the ways in which such rights can be realized.
We will protect the rights and interests of owners of natural resource assets and ensure that returns generated from these assets are shared fairly. We will deepen reform of the mining rights system. We will establish sound systems and platforms for trading rights and interests related to ecological conservation and environmental protection. We will enforce a stringent regime for the protection of intellectual property rights, improve the system of ownership of intellectual property rights to better incentivize innovation, and develop a trading and service platform for intellectual property rights, so as to turn China into a country strong on intellectual property rights.
Chapter 13 Improve the Modern Market System
We will accelerate the development of a unified and open market system that ensures orderly competition, establish mechanisms for ensuring fair competition, overcome regional segmentation, break up industry monopolies, and remove market barriers in order to promote the free and orderly flow and equitable exchange of goods and factors of production.
The Market for Factors of Production
We will work faster to establish a unified rural-urban market for land designated for construction purposes. On the basis that land is developed in accordance with state plans, used in compliance with the regulatory framework, and secured in accordance with the law, we will ensure that rural collectively owned land designated for business- related construction enters the market on an equal footing with and is subject to the same rights and prices as similarly designated state-owned land. We will improve the system for requisitioning collectively owned land, narrow the scope of land requisition, establish standard requisition procedures, and improve mechanisms for safeguarding the rights and interests of those whose land is requisitioned. We will launch trials to make rural land for private housing eligible for use as collateral to secure financing, to allow for appropriate transfers of such land, and to allow such land to be given up voluntarily for compensation. We will improve systems for the market-based allocation of land designated for industrial purposes. We will coordinate human resource markets as a whole and implement an equal employment system. We will step up the development of technology exchange platforms, improve regulations concerning technology trading markets, and encourage the development of technology intermediary service organizations.
Reform of Pricing Mechanisms
We will reduce government intervention in pricing, lift all price controls over goods and services in competitive industries, and lift price controls over competitive areas within the power, petroleum, natural gas, transportation, and telecommunications industries. We will improve medical service pricing. We will improve water pricing mechanisms. We will improve tiered pricing for household electricity consumption and introduce, across the board, tiered pricing for household water and natural gas consumption. We will refine the mechanisms for determining commodity price-linked subsidies. We will establish a sound mechanism for coordinating government investment and price adjustments for public utilities and public-benefit services. We will ensure that pricing complies with standardized procedures, that cost oversight and review are strengthened, and that costs are more transparent.
Section 3 Fair Competition
We will abolish all regulations and practices that impede the promotion of a unified market and fair competition. We will refine policies to promote competition, improve market competition regulations, and implement a review system for fair competition. We will relax restrictions on market access and improve mechanisms for exiting the market. We will improve the anti-monopoly and market regulatory law enforcement systems, ensuring they are unified and standardized, consist of well- defined powers and obligations, are fair and efficient, and are based on the rule of law. We will enforce strict compulsory standards for product quality, workplace safety, energy consumption, and environmental impact. We will establish sound codes of conduct and regulatory methods for market entities. We will improve public oversight mechanisms and further open up channels for submitting complaints and reporting bad practices. Oversight will be strengthened over internet transactions. We will crack down on the production and sale of counterfeit products.
Chapter 14 Deepen Reform of the Administrative System
We will accelerate the transformation of government functions, continue to streamline administration and delegate more powers, improve regulation, and provide better services, so as to refine government performance and stimulate market vitality and social creativity.
Streamlined Administration and Increased Delegation of Powers
We will establish a sound management model based on catalogs of powers and obligations and a negative list, and delineate the boundaries between the powers and obligations of government, market, and society. We will deepen reform of the government review and approval system, reducing to the greatest possible extent government intervention in enterprises as well as the scope of the government pre- approval system. We will strengthen targeting and coordination in streamlining administration and delegating powers. We will deepen reform of the business system and work to provide quick and convenient services. We will deepen the reform of public
institutions that perform administrative functions by devoting great effort to separating government administration from the management of such institutions.
Section 2 Government Oversight
We will adapt our concept of oversight toward strengthening operational and post-operational business oversight. We will formulate sound and effective rules, procedures, and standards for market oversight, better define responsibilities related to oversight, and promote oversight modernization. We will innovate oversight mechanisms and methods, move forward with coordinated law enforcement and oversight using big data, and employ market, credit, and legal measures to coordinate oversight. We will introduce, across the board, oversight based on inspections of randomly selected entities by randomly selected inspectors and the public release of results. We will ensure that public oversight is strengthened.
Improvement of Government Services
We will innovate the way government services are provided, ensuring that both government and public services are open, transparent, effective, convenient, fair, and easy-to-access. We will work faster to standardize government approval, and improve work processes and service standards for services provided directly to enterprises and the general public. We will strengthen coordination between government offices. We will popularize the use of the “Internet +” government services model and increase government transparency across the board.
Chapter 15 Accelerate Reform of the Fiscal and Tax Systems
We will deepen reforms to create sound and modern fiscal and tax systems, focusing on key issues including delineating the powers and spending obligations of the central and local governments, improving local taxation systems, strengthening local development capacity, and reducing burdens on enterprises.
Reasonable and Orderly Division of Financial Resources
We will create a system in which the powers of governments are commensurate with their respective spending obligations, and make appropriate adjustments to strengthen the powers and increase the spending obligations of the central government. In view of the tax system reform as well as the nature of different types of taxes, we will further adjust the distribution of revenue between the central and local governments and improve methods of sharing VAT revenue. We will improve the system of transfer payments from the central to local governments, standardize the general transfer payment system, refine methods for allocating funds, and increase the transparency of transfer payments. We will improve the distribution of financial resources from the provincial level down.
A Comprehensive, Well-Regulated, and Transparent Budget System
We will put in place a sound mechanism to ensure that the compilation, execution, and oversight of budgets complement as well as constitute a check on each other. We will improve the government budget system, increase the level of coordination between government-managed fund budgets, state capital operations budgets, and general public budgets, and refine the budget system for social security funds. We will implement a mechanism for balancing budgets across fiscal years and put in place medium-term fiscal planning to achieve greater coordination between budgets and plans for economic and social development. We will implement performance-based budget management nationwide. We will establish a system for reporting government assets, deepen reform of the government debt management system, and put in place standardized mechanisms for managing government debt and providing early warning against risks. We will establish a system for comprehensive government financial reporting based on accrual accounting and a management system for the target balance of the treasury general account. We will extend the scope and increase the level of detail of budgets made publicly available.
Tax and Fee Systems
Given the need to optimize the tax system, keep the tax incidence stable at the macro level, and ensure taxes are administered in accordance with the law, we must fully implement the principle of law-based taxation; establish a modern tax system which is composed of well-conceived tax categories, is better structured, legally sound, well-regulated, and fair, and which allows for efficient administration; and gradually increase the proportion of direct tax. We will complete across the board the reform to replace business tax with VAT and establish a standardized consumption-based VAT system. We will improve the excise tax system. We will impose ad valorem tax on resources and steadily extend the scope of resources covered by the tax. We will review and regulate relevant administrative charges and government- managed funds. We will introduce an environmental protection tax. We will improve local tax systems and move forward with legislation to introduce a real estate tax. We will improve the system of customs duties. We will move faster with reform related to non-tax revenue management to establish a system for non-tax revenue management that is sound, standardized, and transparent and has a legal basis. We will deepen reform of the system for the administration of national and local taxes, refine methods of tax administration, and improve the efficiency of tax administration. Electronic invoices will be introduced.
Mechanisms for Sustainable Financial Development
We will optimize the government spending mix, revise unsustainable spending policies, adjust expenditures which are ineffectual or inefficient, and recover duplicate or misallocated expenditures. We will link the management of treasury funds with the allocation of transfer payment funds. With the aim of ensuring fiscal sustainability, we will develop new forms of government spending, guide the involvement of private capital in the provision of public goods, keep government spending at a reasonable level, and ensure government deficits and debt are kept within a manageable range.
Chapter 16 Accelerate Financial Reform
We will improve financial institutions and market systems, promote the healthy development of capital markets, improve monetary policy mechanisms, deepen reform of the financial regulatory system, and refine our modern financial systems, thereby improving the efficiency of the financial sector in serving the real economy as well as the financial sector ’s ability to support the transformation of China’s economy, and effectively guarding against and defusing financial risks.
The System of Financial Institutions
We will improve the system of financial institutions, ensuring an appropriate division of roles and complementarity between commercial, development, policy- backed, and cooperative financing. We will foster a system of multilevel and differentiated banking institutions that offers extensive coverage, expand the amount of private capital entering the banking sector, and develop inclusive finance and a variety of forms of micro, small, and medium financial organizations. We will develop well- regulated internet-based financing. We will promote the prudent development of comprehensive operations by financial institutions. We will see that private financing becomes more transparent and regulate the development of microfinance and financing guarantee institutions. We will ensure that the quality of the management and services of financial institutions is improved.
The Financial Market System
We will develop open, transparent, and sound capital markets, and increase the proportion of direct financing to reduce leverage ratios. We will create the conditions for switching to a registration system for initial public offerings, develop a multilevel equity financing market, deepen reform of ChiNext and the New Third Board, ensure regional equity markets develop in line with regulations, and establish sound mechanisms for stocks to be delisted or transferred between market boards. We will improve the bond registration system and bond market infrastructure, and move faster to achieve connectivity between bond markets. We will develop financial services that meet the needs for innovation, encourage prudent bond product innovation, promote high-yield bonds and hybrid securities as methods of financing, and channel great energy into developing financial leasing services. We will improve mechanisms for determining interest rates and foreign exchange rates and make better use of the treasury yield curve as a benchmark for pricing. We will give impetus to the development of markets for interbank borrowing, repurchase agreements, negotiable instruments, foreign exchange, and gold. We will promote active and prudent innovation in the futures market and markets for other derivatives. We will move faster in developing the insurance and reinsurance markets and explore the possibility of establishing mechanisms for trading insurance assets. We will establish secure and efficient financial infrastructure and implement the national treasury project.
Reform of the Framework for Financial Regulation
We will strengthen the system of macroprudential regulation for the financial sector, step up planning and coordination, reform and improve the financial regulatory framework to see that it is better adapted to developments in modern financial markets,
clarify regulatory functions and responsibilities for guarding against and treating risks, and establish a financial management system that coordinates monetary policy and prudential regulation. We will coordinate regulation of systemically important financial institutions, financial holding companies, and key financial infrastructure, integrate comprehensive financial sector statistics, and strengthen comprehensive and functional regulation. We will improve central and local financial management systems. We will improve regulatory rules to ensure they are suited to the Chinese context and in accord with international standards, and establish frameworks for functional regulation targeted at each type of investment and financing behavior and for conduct oversight that genuinely protects the legitimate rights and interests of financial consumers, so as to achieve oversight that covers every aspect of financial risks. We will improve the management system for state- owned financial capital. We will strengthen the management of foreign exchange reserves and optimize their use. We will make effective use of and develop tools for financial risk management, and improve mechanisms for monitoring, early warning, stress testing, risk assessment and management, and market stability, so as to prevent the occurrence of systemic and regional financial risks.
Toward a Modern Financial System
1. Financial factor supply-side structural reform
§ Establish multilevel, diversified, complementary financial markets to meet the investment and financing needs of the real economy;
§ Promote the switch to mixed ownership in financial institutions and improve corporate governance;
§ Support the development of science and technology related finance, green finance, local small and medium financial institutions, inclusive rural finance, and finance related to poverty alleviation.
2. Improvement of financial regulatory mechanisms
§ Improve on the extent to which interest rates are determined by the market and put into use new monetary policy regulation tools;
§ Boost the role of credit policy in targeted structural adjustments;
§ Increase the flexibility of the RMB exchange rate and improve the RMB exchange rate index with respect to a reference basket of currencies;
§ Establish forward guidance mechanisms for the central bank;
§ Develop channels for RMB and foreign currency policy transmission.
3. Steady steps toward opening the financial sector to foreign competition
§ Establish cross-border exchanges for policy-backed and development financing;
§ Create national financial security review mechanisms and counter- financial sanction mechanisms, and improve systems to combat money laundering and
Chapter 17 Innovate and Improve Macroeconomic Regulation
We will improve the macroeconomic regulation system, develop new methods of macroeconomic regulation, and strengthen the coordination of macroeconomic policies. We will work harder to create jobs, keep prices stable, make structural adjustments, raise efficiency, guard against and control risk, protect the environment, and guide market behavior and public expectations, thereby fostering a stable macroeconomic environment for structural reform.
Role of Plans and Strategies in Providing Guidance
We will exercise macroeconomic regulation based on long- and medium-term national development plans and objectives and total supply and demand. We will ensure that national development strategies and plans work to guide and constrain
behavior, and that all macroeconomic regulation policies are in line with and serve the needs of development. We will improve our system of policies, ensuring fiscal and monetary policies play a leading role while industrial, regional, investment, consumption, and pricing policies play a supplementary role. We will strengthen coordination between fiscal and monetary policies.
Regulatory Methods and Diversification of Policy Tools
Our work to balance total supply and demand and make structural improvements will continue, and the fundamental focus and policy orientation of macroeconomic regulation will be to keep the economy performing within an appropriate range and to improve its quality and performance. On the basis of range- based regulation, we will place greater weight on targeted and well-timed regulation, taking well- targeted regulatory measures to carry out appropriately timed pre-emptive adjustment and fine-tuning. We will maintain policy stability, improve communication with the market, and see that policy predictability and transparency are increased. We will ensure that fiscal policies better support targeted regulation. We will improve the operational targets, regulatory framework, and transmission mechanisms of monetary policies, establish mechanisms for target interest rates and interest rate corridors, and shift our focus from quantitative to price-based monetary policies.
Policy- and Decision-Making Mechanisms
We will strengthen economic monitoring, forecasting, and early warning mechanisms, and improve our ability to analyze and assess international and domestic situations. We will strengthen research on major issues, build up policy reserves, and improve our mechanisms for policy analysis, evaluation, and adjustment. We will establish a sound mechanism for coordinating major regulatory policies so that they work together effectively. We will establish a modern statistical survey system, promote innovation in the systems, mechanisms, and methods used for statistical surveys, and
encourage the application of internet, statistical cloud, and Big Data technologies to collect more timely, comprehensive, and accurate information on economic performance. We will accelerate work on legislation related to macroeconomic regulation.
Investment and Financing Systems
We will establish a system of lists of powers and responsibilities for the management of enterprise investment projects and better ensure that enterprises have decision-making powers over their investments. We will further streamline investment approval procedures; reduce, combine, and regulate items required for development projects when applying for government approval; improve online platforms for reviewing, approving, and monitoring projects; and put in place a system to allow the different steps of the approval process for enterprise investment projects to be completed in tandem. We will further lift market access restrictions on sectors such as infrastructure and public utilities, and use public- private partnership models such as franchise operations and government procurement of services to encourage the involvement of nongovernmental capital through investment, construction, and operations in these sectors. We will improve the way government funds are invested and ensure that national industrial investment funds play a better role in encouraging other types of investment.
PART IV AGRICULTURAL MODERNIZATION
Agriculture is the foundation on which we can finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and achieve modernization. The agricultural growth model must be transformed at a faster pace, industrial, production, and business operation systems that work for modern agriculture must be established, and the quality, returns, and competitiveness of agriculture must be strengthened to allow China to embark on a path of agricultural modernization which ensures high yields and safe products, conserves resources, and is environmentally friendly.
Chapter 18 Strengthen Capacity for Ensuring Safety of Agricultural Products
We will make sure we achieve basic self-sufficiency in cereal grains and absolute food security, make agricultural structural adjustments and improvements, raise our production capacity for agricultural products while also improving quality and safety, and see that a better structured, more effective supply of agricultural products takes shape.
Safeguards for Grain Production
We will continue to apply the strictest possible protection system for farmland and will designate permanent basic cropland throughout the country. We will put in place a food crop production strategy that is based on farmland management and the application of technology, and with the focus on major growing areas of grain crop and other staple agricultural products, we will make a large-scale push to see the building of farmland irrigation systems and water conservancy infrastructure, the restoration of rural land, the improvement of low- and medium-yield cropland, and the development of high-quality farmland. We will improve the system for ensuring that cultivated land taken over for nonagricultural use is replaced with land of an equivalent amount and quality, explore the possibility of formulating measures for national coordination in offsetting farmland that has been used for major construction projects, and ensure that the stripping and reuse of topsoil are practiced nationwide on all cultivated land put to nonagricultural use. We will establish grain crop production functional zones and protected areas for the production of major agricultural products to ensure that the acreage of land devoted to growing grain crops such as rice and wheat remains basically stable. We will improve the mechanism for subsidizing major grain crop production
areas. We will intensify efforts to realize green, high-yield, and efficient grain crop production.
Agricultural Structural Adjustments
We will promote the coordination of food, cash, and fodder crop production, step up integrated development of the farming, forestry, livestock, and fishing industries, and integrate planting, breeding, and processing. We will actively guide adjustments to the production mix of agricultural products and support superior producing areas in developing production centers for cotton, oilseed, sugar crops, soybeans, forestry seedlings, and fruit. Taking into consideration the scale of planting and breeding operations and resource and environmental carrying capacities, we will promote models that swap food crop for fodder crop cultivation and integrate planting and breeding operations, and develop the farming area-based livestock industry. We will develop modern grass industries and herbivorous livestock industries region by region. We will ensure that livestock, poultry, and aquaculture farming are further standardized and brought up to scale. We will ensure that the dairy industry produces safe, quality products. We will improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of horticultural products. We will develop economic forests and under-forest economies that take advantage of local strengths. We will improve the geographical layout of the production of specialty agricultural products. We will accelerate the development of demonstration areas for modern agriculture.
Integrated Development of Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Industries in Rural Areas
We will promote the development of agricultural production and value chains, create different types of linkages between the interests of different entities, and foster entities that integrate primary, secondary, and tertiary industry operations as well as help develop new kinds of such operations in order to open up more channels through which rural residents can increase their incomes and benefit more from the resultant value-added. We will promote the development of processing industries and services for agricultural production. We will see that agriculture takes on more functions, promote close cooperation between agriculture on the one hand and leisure, tourism, education, culture, and health on the other, and develop new forms of agricultural business such as agri-tourism, agricultural experiences, and creative agriculture. We will accelerate the development of modern urban agriculture. We will put rural resources and factors of production to better use so as to increase the property income of rural residents.
Agricultural Product Quality and Safety
We will move faster to improve agricultural standards and ensure they are met in all agricultural production. We will strengthen quality and safety oversight over agricultural products and inputs, strengthen safety management at production sites, implement a certification system for product oversight both before products leave production sites and on entrance into markets, and establish interconnected, shared agricultural product quality and safety information platforms allowing for full traceability at every stage, thereby forming a stronger quality and safety oversight system that covers the entire journey of agricultural products from farm to table. We will strengthen work on addressing excess residues of pesticides and livestock medicines. We will enforce strict standards for the control of additives in edible agricultural products. We will move forward with the national initiative to develop counties with advanced capabilities for ensuring agricultural product quality and safety. We will strengthen our ability to prevent and control animal and plant diseases and increase oversight over the quality and safety of agricultural imports. We will develop brands of quality agricultural products and support brand marketing.
Sustainable Agricultural Development
We will work hard to develop eco-friendly agriculture. We will carry out the initiative to achieve zero growth in the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and promote fertilizer use based on the results of soil tests as well as the targeted and effective use of pesticides nationwide. We will implement a demonstration project for circular agriculture through integrated planting and breeding, and promote the recovery of resources and safe disposal of waste materials from planting and breeding industries. We will take comprehensive measures to prevent and control agricultural pollution from non-point sources. We will protect and improve the quality of cultivated land, promote deep planting and plowing to improve cropland in major agricultural product production areas, and strengthen the protection of chernozem soil in northeast China. We will pilot crop rotation and fallow systems focusing on cones of depression, heavy metal contaminated areas, and areas suffering serious ecological degradation. Large- scale, high- efficiency, and water-saving irrigation will be introduced in all key irrigation areas. Dry farming will be encouraged in more areas. Special action plans for promoting water conservation will be implemented in the drainage basins of Yarkand, Hotan, and other rivers in southern Xinjiang and in seriously water-deprived areas such as the Hexi Corridor of Gansu and Baicheng in Jilin. We will strengthen development of the meteorological service system for agriculture. We will establish pilot demonstration zones for sustainable agricultural development.
International Cooperation in Agriculture
We will improve mechanisms for regulating trade in agricultural products, optimize the mix of sources of imports, expand exports of competitive agricultural products while ensuring domestic supply, and appropriately increase imports of agricultural products that are in short supply at home. We will actively pursue agricultural cooperation and development overseas, establish large-scale offshore centers for farm product production, processing, storage, and transportation, and cultivate internationally competitive multinational agricultural companies. We will broaden the areas of international agricultural cooperation and support bilateral and multilateral cooperation in agricultural technology.
Chapter 19 Establish a Modern Agricultural Operations System
Guided by the need to develop different forms of appropriately scaled agricultural operations, we will create new methods for organizing agricultural operations and establish a modern system of agricultural operations that is based on rural household operations, held together by cooperation and association, and supported by society-wide services, thereby increasing the overall returns of agriculture.
Appropriately Scaled Agricultural Operations
We will keep rural land contract relationships stable, improve the measures for separating land ownership rights, contract rights, and management rights, promote the orderly transfer of land management rights in accordance with the law, and develop appropriately scaled agricultural operations through means such as third party cultivation, joint cultivation of combined land, land trusteeship, and joint-stock cooperation.
New Types of Agribusiness
We will make policies more conducive to the growth of new types of agribusiness, support the development of large family farming businesses and family farms, guide and promote the well-regulated development of farmers’ cooperatives, support the growth of enterprises that are leaders in agricultural industrialization, cultivate a new type of professional farmer, and nurture competent modern agricultural operators. We will encourage and support industrial and commercial capital investment in modern agriculture and promote the development of agricultural-commercial alliances and other emerging business models.
The System of Society-Wide Services for Agriculture
We will implement a program to support society-wide services for agriculture, and develop commercial service organizations. We will support the provision of public- benefit agricultural services by research institutions, industry associations, leading enterprises, and qualified commercial service organizations, and support different types of new agricultural service entities in offering professional services on a large scale. We will give impetus to trials for making innovations in society-wide services at every stage of the agricultural production process, and actively promote various forms of services such as cooperative, trusteeship-based, and order-based services. We will strengthen the development of distribution facilities and markets for agricultural products, work to improve rural logistics and comprehensive service networks, encourage the development of e-commerce in rural areas, and implement projects to encourage the development of precooling in specialty agricultural product producing areas and express delivery services in rural areas. We will deepen the comprehensive reform of supply and marketing cooperatives. We will make innovations in society- wide agricultural service mechanisms.
Chapter 20 Improve Technology and Equipment and Increase Information Technology Application in Agriculture
With the aim of raising agricultural productivity, we will improve systems for promoting innovation in and the application of modern agricultural science and technology, accelerate agricultural mechanization, strengthen the integration of information technology into agriculture, and develop intelligent agriculture.
Agricultural Technology and Equipment
We will strengthen innovation in agricultural science and technology and accelerate work on developing bio-breeding, agricultural machinery and equipment, and eco-friendly methods for increasing production. We will promote the use of high- yield, high-quality crop breeds suited to mechanized agriculture as well as standardized and localized models of high-yield and high-performance cultivation, and we will improve the conditions for making innovations in major agricultural laboratories. We will develop the modern seed industry, tackle key scientific and technological issues to make progress in the development of superior seed varieties, implement a new action plan for upgrading crop varieties, develop national seed breeding and production centers, and help the growth of leading seed enterprises using integrated cultivation- breeding-promotion operations. We will promote complete mechanization of the production process of major crops as well as the integration of agricultural machinery and methods. We will improve and invigorate networks for the promotion of agricultural technology at the community level.
Information Technology Adoption in Agriculture
We will promote the integration of information technology into agricultural production management, operations management, market distribution, and fields related to resources and the environment. We will help spread the Internet of Things into agriculture by carrying out an experimental project to promote its use in certain regions, thereby promoting the development of intelligent agriculture and precision agriculture. We will promote the use of big data in agriculture and strengthen the overall capabilities of agricultural information services. We will encourage internet enterprises to establish agricultural service platforms that bring together the processes of production and marketing, and accelerate the development of agriculture-related e- commerce.
Chapter 21 Improve Systems for Providing Support and Protection for Agriculture
With an emphasis on ensuring the supply of major agricultural products, promoting increases in rural incomes, and achieving sustainable agricultural development, we will improve policy support aimed at strengthening agriculture, benefiting farmers, and raising rural living standards and raise our level of support and protection for agriculture.
Increased Investment in Agriculture
We will establish a mechanism for steadily increasing investment in agriculture and rural areas. In the area of agricultural investment, we will improve the government spending mix, create new ways of investing and operating government funds, promote the integration of investment projects, and improve the efficacy of subsidy policies. We will progressively increase the range and scale of green box subsidies while adjusting and improving amber box policies. The subsidies for food crop production, for promoting superior grain crop varieties, and for supporting the purchase of agricultural supplies will be combined into a single agricultural support and protection subsidy. We will improve subsidy policies for the purchase of agricultural machinery and tools, and give priority to grain crop producers, new types of agribusinesses, and major agricultural production areas in the allocation of these subsidies. We will establish a system of protection and compensation for arable land.
Pricing, Purchasing, and Stockpiling Systems for Agricultural Products
We will ensure equal emphasis is placed on both carrying out market- oriented reforms and protecting the interests of farmers, and improve the system for regulating the market for agricultural products and the market system itself. We will continue to implement and improve the minimum purchase price policy for rice and wheat, and deepen reform of the program for guaranteeing base prices for cotton and soybeans. We will explore the possibility of trialing base price insurance for agricultural products. We will actively and prudently carry out reform of the price-setting mechanism and the purchasing and stockpiling systems for corn, and establish a system for subsidizing corn producers. We will implement a project to ensure security of the purchase, stockpiling, and supply of grain crops, research and determine the optimum scale of reserves of grain crops and other important agricultural products, reform and improve the grain crop reserve management system as well as mechanisms for grain crop regulation and adjustment, and guide a diverse range of market entities—such as distribution and processing businesses—in participating in the purchase and stockpiling of agricultural products. We will move forward with the development of intelligent storage facilities for grain crops and work to conserve grain crops and reduce waste.
Innovations in Rural Financial Services
We will ensure all types of financial institutions support agriculture, and develop inclusive financing in rural areas. We will improve systems for supporting agricultural development and for the construction of rural infrastructure using development and policy-backed financing. We will carry out reform of rural credit cooperatives and strengthen the service functions of provincial-level unions of such cooperatives. We will actively develop diverse forms of rural financial institutions such as village banks. We will steadily carry out trials to allow farmers’ cooperatives to use internal funds to provide financial services to their members. We will establish a sound policy-backed credit guaranty system for agriculture. We will improve the agricultural insurance system, steadily increase trials of the “insurance +futures” model, expand the scope of insurance coverage, raise insurance benefits, and improve the risk-spreading mechanisms of agricultural insurance against the risks posed by major disasters.
2. The modern seed industry
§ Develop a national system for the collection, storage, and research of germplasm resources;
§ Strengthen research and development of key technologies for crop heterosis exploitation, molecular design breeding, cell and chromosome engineering, high- efficiency seed production, and fine and deep processing of seeds;
§ Strengthen capacity for seed quality inspection;
§ Establish national seed production centers in Hainan, Gansu, Sichuan, and other provinces, and 100 regional superior seed production centers.
3. Water-efficient agriculture
§ Spread the application of water-efficient irrigation and promote water- efficient projects, crop breeds, agronomy, and management;
§ Accelerate the implementation of regional scaled high-efficiency water- saving irrigation projects, using water-conserving methods to increase crop production in the northeast, raise irrigation efficiency in the northwest, address groundwater overdraft in the north, and reduce waste water discharge in the south;
§ Increase the area of cropland making use of high-efficiency water- conserving irrigation by 6.7 million hectares, thereby raising the irrigation water utilization coefficient to 0.55 or above.
4. Agricultural mechanization
§ Make breakthroughs in mechanizing the transplanting of rice seedlings, the sowing and harvesting of canola seeds, and the harvesting of cotton and sugarcane;
§ Promote the use of high-horsepower and high-performance agricultural machinery and light, durable, and lower-power small and medium plowing, planting, and harvesting machines and crop protection machines;
§ Develop 500 counties able to demonstrate mechanization of the entire agricultural process;
§ See that mechanization of the plowing, planting, and harvesting of major farm crops reaches approximately 70%.
5. Intelligent agriculture
§ Introduce “Internet +” modern agriculture, facilitate the adoption of the Internet of Things in field planting, livestock and poultry production, and fishery operations, and support e-commerce, logistics, commercial, trade, and financial enterprises in participating in the development of e-commerce platforms for farmers, rural areas, and agriculture;
§ Establish monitoring, analysis, and early-warning systems based on agricultural information.
6. Agricultural product quality and safety
§ Make a serious push to reduce pesticide and chemical fertilizer use in the production of agricultural products;
§ Develop pollution-free agricultural products, green foodstuffs, organic agricultural products, and agricultural products using geographical indications;
§ Strengthen epidemic disease and pest monitoring and early-warning
systems and green prevention and control, establish an information traceability system for oversight over the quality and safety of agricultural products, and achieve interconnection and information sharing between all types of platforms for products tracing information;
§ Ensure that livestock antibiotics are properly used and that the indexes for pesticide and livestock medicine residues are basically in line with Codex Alimentarius standards.
7. Cultivation of new types of agribusiness
§ Develop demonstration family farms, demonstration agricultural cooperatives, agricultural industrialization demonstration centers, and demonstration service organizations;
§ Implement the modern agricultural talent development plan;
§ Cultivate leaders of new types of agribusiness, and train young managers capable of operating modern farms, people with practical skills for rural areas, and a new type of professional farmer.
8. Integrated development of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in rural areas
§ Implement the “100 counties, 1,000 townships, 10,000 villages ” pilot demonstration project to promote the integrated development of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in rural areas;
§ Create a number of integrated development models and forms of business that can be replicated elsewhere;
§ Develop a number of rural enterprises that can take the lead in integrating the development of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries;
§ Cultivate a number of areas that can lead the way in integrated development.
AN OPTIMIZED MODERN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM
With a focus on carrying out deep structural adjustment and revitalizing the real economy, we will move ahead with supply- side structural reforms, foster new industries while upgrading traditional ones, and move faster to put in place a new modern industrial system that has strong innovative capabilities, provides quality services, is based on close collaboration, and is environmentally friendly.
Chapter 22 Develop China into a Manufacturing Powerhouse
We will implement the Made in China 2025 action plan. With an emphasis on strengthening the innovative capacity and basic capabilities of manufacturing, we will work to deepen the integration of information technology and manufacturing technology and promote the development of high-end, smart, green, and service- orientated manufacturing so as to foster a new competitive edge in manufacturing.
Stronger Industrial Foundations
We will strengthen the foundations of industry by working to break through bottlenecks in four areas: key basic materials, core basic spare parts and components, advanced fundamental techniques, and basic industrial technologies. We will guide cooperation between whole- equipment manufacturing enterprises on the one hand and enterprises, institutions of higher learning, and research institutes engaged in these four areas on the other. We will support collaborative innovation and joint research efforts by participants throughout the whole production chain in order to systematically solve key engineering and manufacturing problems relevant to the four areas. We will strengthen the development of standards, measurement, certification and accreditation, and inspection and testing systems related to fundamental industrial areas. We will build manufacturing innovation centers and support the development of industrial design centers. We will set up a national industrial design institute.
New Manufacturing Development
We will implement the high-end equipment innovation and development project to significantly increase our design and systems integration capabilities. We will carry out a smart manufacturing initiative aimed at accelerating the development of technologies and equipment crucial for smart manufacturing and strengthening industrial foundations such as smart manufacturing standards, industrial electronic devices, and core support software. We will intensify facilities construction, technological verification, and the demonstration and promotion of the industrial internet, and make substantial breakthroughs in promoting Made in China + the internet. We will cultivate and promote new types of smart manufacturing and encourage a move toward flexible, intelligent, and lean modes of production. We will encourage the establishment of smart manufacturing alliances. We will create a green manufacturing system through green manufacturing projects and green product lifecycle management. To promote the transformation of manufacturing from production to both production and the provision of services, we will encourage manufacturing enterprises to extend their service chains and add value to their services. We will help manufacturing clusters transform and upgrade, establish demonstration centers for new industrialization, and cultivate advanced manufacturing centers.
Transformation and Upgrading of Traditional Industries
We will transform and upgrade major manufacturing technologies and improve policies to support enterprises in emulating world-wide models in terms of techniques, processes, equipment, energy efficiency, and environmental protection, thereby helping key manufacturing sectors move into the medium-high end. We will improve the supply of consumer goods. We will encourage mergers and acquisitions of enterprises so as to put in place a highly concentrated, specialized, and cooperative industrial structure with a core of conglomerate companies. We will support the development of specialized small and medium enterprises.
Quality and Brand Development
In order to make China a country strong on quality, we will work to see that enterprise quality management is strengthened, the quality of products is improved and brands are elevated, key generic technology problems affecting product quality improvement are addressed, legal protections for trademarks and brands are strengthened, and a number of competitive, well- known brands are created. We will establish a release and oversight system for the declaration of product and service standards by enterprises, and support enterprises in improving their online quality inspection and control capabilities as well as their product lifecycle quality tracking capabilities. We will improve quality assurance and regulation systems and strengthen national-level quality inspection and evaluation centers as well as public service platforms for quality inspection and testing certification. We will introduce a punitive compensation system for producers who fail to meet product quality standards.
An Active and Prudent Approach to Overcapacity
We will strengthen policy guidance to ensure market clearing is achieved through the comprehensive use of market mechanisms, economic and legal measures, and if necessary, administrative measures. We will establish a mechanism to address overcapacity by ensuring compliance with standards for the production process, technology, energy consumption, environmental protection, quality, and safety, and will tighten industry regulations and market entry management in order to shut down outdated production facilities. We will set up a fund to provide rewards and subsidies for structural adjustments in industrial enterprises; move more quickly to address overcapacity in industries such as steel and coal through mergers, reorganizations, debt restructurings, bankruptcy liquidations, and better asset utilization; actively and prudently handle the winding up of enterprises in an organized way on the basis of classification; and ensure that employees laid off from such enterprises are properly resettled.
Lower Business Costs in the Real Economy
We will cut business costs in the real economy. To lower government- imposed transaction costs, we will further streamline administration and delegate more powers, streamline and standardize intermediary services for government approval prior to applying for a business license, and overhaul and regulate charges for intermediary services. We will help businesses reduce labor costs by determining appropriate minimum wage levels, streamlining and consolidating the old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation, maternity insurance, and housing provident fund schemes, and reducing, as appropriate, the ratio of enterprise contributions to these schemes. We will reduce taxes and fees for enterprises by lowering the proportion of their VAT and turnover taxes, reviewing and standardizing enterprise support funds, and canceling unreasonable charges. To lower enterprise financial costs, we will maintain proper liquidity and interest rates, create new direct financing products suitable to the needs of enterprises, and establish a national financing guaranty fund. We will reduce the energy costs of enterprises by better linking domestic and international energy prices as well as domestic coal and electricity prices. We will reduce enterprise logistics costs by improving logistics organization and management and standardizing road tolls. We will encourage and guide enterprises in conducting innovative management, improving techniques and processes, and conserving energy and materials.
drilling, seafloor resources exploration and development, and marine operations support;
§ Promote the development and engineering of deep-sea stations and large floating structures and launch projects in this regard;
§ Focus on breakthroughs in core technologies for cruise ships and other high- tech vessels, as well as for the integrated, intelligent, and modular design and manufacturing of key accessory equipment for such vessels.
3. Advanced rail transit equipment
§ Develop advanced and reliable rail transit products and light, modular, and serial rail products;
§ Develop next generation high-speed and heavy-load rail transit equipment and systems;
§ Become better able to provide users with lifecycle rail transit system solutions;
§ Set up a national high-speed train technological innovation center.
4. High-grade CNC machine tools
§ Develop fast, flexible, and high-precision CNC machine tools, basic manufacturing equipment, and integrated manufacturing systems;
§ Develop high-grade digitally controlled systems, bearings, gratings, sensors, and other major components as well as key application software, with a focus on improving reliability and retention of precision.
§ Develop industrial, service, surgical, and military robots;
§ Promote independence in the design and production of high-precision retarders, high-speed high-performance controllers, high-performance servo motors and drives, and other key parts and components;
§ Facilitate the commercial application of artificial intelligence technologies in all sectors.
6. Modern agricultural machinery and equipment
§ Develop advanced agricultural machinery suitable for all cultivation conditions, with a focus on high horsepower tractors and compound operations machinery, large and efficient combine harvesters, precision seeders, and other food- crop equipment, as well as machinery for seeding, farmland management, and harvesting of cotton, sugar cane, and other cash crops.
7. High-performance medical equipment
§ Focus efforts on the research and development of diagnostic and treatment equipment such as nuclear medicine imaging equipment, superconducting magnetic resonance imaging systems, and non-invasive ventilators as well as in vitro diagnostic equipment such as fully automatic biochemistry analyzers and high-throughput genomic sequencers;
§ Develop and put into use medical accelerators and other treatment equipment as well as implantable and insertable medical devices, such as artificial heart valves and pacemakers, stents, and artificial joints;
Chapter 23 Develop Strategic Emerging Industries
By targeting cutting-edge technologies, adhering to industrial development trends, focusing on key areas, and optimizing the integration of policies, we will create space for the growth of emerging industries and see that they gain a competitive advantage in the future. We will work to ensure that the value- added of strategic emerging industries reaches 15% of China’s GDP.
Emerging Industries’ Bigger Role in Bolstering the Economy
We will support the development of next generation information technology, new-energy vehicles, biotechnology, green and low-carbon technology, high-end equipment and materials, and digital creative industries. In fostering new areas of economic growth, we will spur innovation and industrial application in emerging, cutting-edge fields such as advanced semi-conductivity, robotics, additive manufacturing, intelligent systems, next generation aviation equipment, comprehensive service systems for space technologies, smart transportation, precision medicine, systems for high-efficiency energy storage and distributed energy, smart materials, efficient energy conservation, environmental protection, virtual reality, and interactive movies and television.
Section 2 Strategic Industries
In bringing about a future-oriented industry structure, we will foster strategic industries in the fields of aerospace, oceanography, information networks, the life sciences, and nuclear technology. In order to cultivate strengths for future development, we will develop new types of air and underwater vehicles, next generation operating platforms, and integrated aerospace observation systems, develop quantum communication and a safe and ubiquitous Internet of Things, and accelerate the development of synthetic biology and regenerative medical techniques as well as next generation nuclear power equipment, small nuclear power systems, and civil nuclear analytical and imaging techniques.
A New Developmental Pattern for Emerging Industries
We will support the development of industrial innovation centers and new technology promotion centers as well as the efforts of cities rich in innovation resources to lead the innovation-driven development of emerging industries. We will help ensure rapid development of the production and innovation chains of emerging industries to accelerate industry clustering according to their specific characteristics. We will put in place a plan to build a global innovation-driven development network for emerging industries, encourage Chinese enterprises to allocate innovation resources globally, and support the establishment of overseas research and development centers.
A Better Environment for Developing Emerging Industries
We will ensure that industrial policies guide development and promote competition, and will put in place market access requirements, regulatory rules, and standards systems conducive to the development of new technologies, new products, and new forms and models of businesses. We will encourage the procurement of innovative products and services both in major infrastructure projects and in projects concerning people’s wellbeing. We will set up a national strategic industry development fund and ensure that the National Venture Capital Guide Fund for Emerging Industries fully plays its role, giving primary support to innovative enterprises in emerging industries that are still in an early stage of development.
Development of Strategic Emerging Industries
1. Innovation in next generation information technology industries
§ Cultivate integrated circuit industrial systems;
§ Foster artificial intelligence, intelligent hardware, new display technologies, smart mobile terminals, 5G mobile communications, advanced sensors, and wearable devices into becoming new areas of growth.
2. Development of the biotech industry
§ Move faster to facilitate the wide application of genomics and other biotechnologies;
§ Create demonstrations of network-based biotech applications;
§ Stimulate the large-scale development of personalized medical treatment, new drugs, bio-breeding, and other next generation biotech products and services;
§ Promote the creation of basic platforms such as gene and cell banks.
3. Intelligent perception of spatial information
§ Accelerate the construction of national civil space infrastructure, primarily revolving around multimode remote sensing, broadband mobile communications, and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System;
§ Provide systemic technological support and greater capacity for industrial applications within the fields of global telecommunications, disaster prevention and mitigation, natural resource surveys and regulation, urban management, meteorological and environmental monitoring, positioning services, and others;
§ Accelerate commercial applications of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and remote sensing satellites.
4. Energy storage and distributed energy
§ Make breakthroughs in and promote the industrial application of key technologies such as next generation photovoltaics, high-efficiency, high-wattage wind power generation, biomass energy, hydrogen power and fuel cells, smart grids, and new types of energy storage devices;
§ Facilitate the comprehensive utilization of distributed new energy
§ Promote the large-scale development of related techniques and equipment.
5. Advanced materials
§ Develop smart materials such as shape-memory alloys and self-healing materials, functional nanomaterials such as grapheme and metamaterials, next generation semiconductor materials such as indium phosphide and silicon carbide, new types of structural materials such as high-performance carbon fibers, vanadium titanium alloy, and high-temperature alloys, and also degradable materials and new biosynthetic materials.
6. New-energy vehicles
§ Promote the use of new-energy vehicles;
§ Encourage the use of new-energy vehicles for urban public transport and taxi services;
§ Develop all-electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles with a focus on making advancements in key technological areas such as battery energy density and battery temperature adaptability;
§ Facilitate the development of a network of charging facilities and services that are compatible with each other and come under unified standards;
§ Improve policies to provide continuous support in this regard;
§ Ensure the cumulative total production and sales figures for new-energy vehicles in China reach five million;
§ Strengthen efforts to recover and dispose of used batteries from new- energy vehicles.
Chapter 24 Increase Quality and Efficiency within the Service Sector
We will accelerate the development of modern services, further open them to foreign competition, and improve their development environment, so as to help producer services move both toward specialization and higher up the value chain, and help consumer services become more refined and increase in quality.
Section 1 Specialization in Producer Services
With the aim of upgrading industries and increasing efficiency, we will promote the development of industrial design and innovation, engineering and commercial
consulting, legal and accounting services, modern insurance, credit ratings, after-sales services, inspection and testing certification, human resource services, and other industries. We will deepen reform of the commodity distribution system, thereby making commodity distribution more IT-based, procedure-based, and intensive and helping traditional commercial industries move more quickly toward utilizing modern distribution methods. We will strengthen the construction of logistics infrastructure, and develop third party, green, and cold chain logistics as well as rural and urban delivery services. We will promote innovation in high-tech services. We will guide producers in moving faster to see that services are separated from production and outsourced. We will bring China’s producer service standards more in line with international standards so as to increase their international competitiveness.
Better Consumer Services
We will accelerate the development of service sectors such as education and training, health and elderly care, culture and entertainment, and sports and fitness. We will develop the tourism industry by improving its quality and efficiency, accelerating the work to make Hainan an international hotspot for tourism, and supporting the development of ecotourism, cultural tourism, leisure tourism, and mountain tourism. We will promote the development of domestic services, working to ensure they become more specialized, scaled-up, and online-based. We will encourage integration in the consumer service sector and the growth of customized services to meet personalized demands. We will support service sector workers in taking part in occupational training and skill appraisal examinations in order to increase their levels of professionalization and specialization. We will put in place an action plan to ensure quality consumer services, spread the use of identifiers of quality service commitments along with systems for their management, and foster well-known service brands.
Better Institutions and Policies for Service Sector Development
We will ensure that nongovernmental capital has greater market access, accelerate the opening of competitive operations in industries such as power, civil aviation, railway, petroleum, natural gas, postal services, and urban utilities, further open the banking, education, medical service, culture, internet, commerce, and logistics sectors, and carry out comprehensive trials to further open up the service sector. We will eliminate all types of discriminatory regulations and improve policies to ensure that all types of nongovernmental capital are able to participate on an equal footing in the development of sectors such as medical services, education, childcare and early childhood education, elderly care, and sports. We will expand the scope of government service procurement and promote competition-based procurement of third party services.
THE CYBER ECONOMY
We will ensure a thorough understanding of developmental trends in information technology, implement the national cyber development strategy, accelerate the development of digital technology, deepen the integration of information technology into economic and social development, and accelerate the expansion of the information economy.
Chapter 25 Build Ubiquitous, Efficient Information Networks
We will accelerate the construction of high-speed, mobile, secure, and ubiquitous next generation information infrastructure and spread the use of information network technology in order to bring about a cyberspace where all things are interconnected, humans and machines engage in interaction, and terrestrial and space-based facilities are integrated.
New Generation High-Speed Fiber-Optic Networks
We will establish backbone networks for modern communications and strengthen capabilities with respect to high-speed transmission, flexible scheduling, and intelligent adapters. We will move faster in deploying fiber optic broadband access: for urban areas, we will ensure optical network coverage, provide gigabit and higher network access services, and see that home broadband subscribers in large and medium cities have flexibility in choosing services in excess of 100 Mbps, while for rural areas, we will work to make sure that 98% of administrative villages are linked up to fiber- optic networks, 100 Mbps or higher access service capabilities are available in areas where conditions permit, and more than half of rural home broadband subscribers have flexibility in choosing services in excess of 50 Mbps. We will establish open international communications facilities, refine the distribution of international communication networks, and improve cross-border land and submarine cable infrastructure. We will develop an online Silk Road with the Arab countries and others and accelerate the development of the China-ASEAN Information Harbor.
An Advanced and Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband Network
We will intensify efforts to spread the availability of high-speed wireless broadband. We will accelerate the development of 4G networks, see that such networks achieve full and robust coverage of towns, townships, and densely populated administrative villages, and expand the availability of free high- speed wireless local area network connectivity in popular public spaces in urban areas. We will accelerate the extension of internet networks to remote mountainous areas, pastoral areas, and island reefs. We will improve the allocation of the country’s spectrum resources, strengthen management over the radio-frequency spectrum, and safeguard security and order with respect to radio waves. We will make appropriate plans for utilizing satellite frequencies and orbital resources. We will accelerate the development of the internet in
space and work to achieve interconnectivity between terrestrial and space-based facilities.
New Information Network Technology
We will drive forward research in key technologies for 5G mobile networks and ultra-wideband applications, and develop commercial applications of 5G technology. We will adopt a forward-thinking approach in planning for the next generation internet and move to upgrade to IPv6 across the board. We will formulate plans for future cyber frameworks, cyber technology systems, and cybersecurity systems. We will focus on making breakthroughs in key big data and cloud computing technologies, independently controllable operating systems, high-end industrial software and large management software, and artificial intelligence technologies for emerging areas.
Broadband Internet Speed and Rates
We will open up competitive areas in basic telecommunication fields to private capital so that infrastructure can be jointly developed and shared among diverse forms of market entities and services are better able to compete with each other. We will step up efforts to offer telecommunications, radio and television, and internet services over a single broadband connection. We will strengthen universal service responsibilities and improve mechanisms toward this end. We will boost broadband speeds, lower rates for internet service, simplify the structure of charges for telecommunications services, and make telecommunications services more cost-effective. We will improve the internet architecture, access technologies, and billing standards. We will strengthen oversight over internet pricing practices.
Chapter 26 Develop Modern Internet Industries
We will implement the “Internet +” action plan to promote deeper and more extensive applications of the internet and help transform modes of production and methods of organization, with the aim of bringing about a new pattern of industrial development that is internet-based, intelligent, service-oriented, and coordinated.
Foundation for the Application of the Internet
We will promote the development of cloud computing and the Internet of Things. We will encourage leading internet enterprises to make available the resources of their platforms, strengthen the development of industry cloud service platforms, and support the shifting of industry information systems to cloud-based platforms. We will move ahead with the planned distribution of Internet of Things sensory equipment and promote the development of open-loop applications of the Internet of Things. We will promote the research, development, and application of key technologies for cyber- physical systems. We will establish standards for the “Internet +” action plan, accelerate the formulation and dissemination of fundamental generic standards and key technical standards for both the internet and areas integrated with the internet, and work to strengthen China’s say in the formulation of international standards.
Integration of the Internet into Multiple Fields
We will organize the implementation of the “Internet +” initiative, accelerate efforts to promote innovations in internet-based business models, service models, management models, supply chains, and logistics chains, cultivate the “Internet +” ecosystem, and ensure the formation of a new pattern of internet-based collaboration and division of work. We will guide large internet enterprises in making innovation resources available to small and micro businesses and entrepreneurial teams, and encourage the establishment of internet-based open innovation alliances. We will
promote new forms of business based on “Internet +,” encourage the establishment of platforms for releasing and sharing resources, explore the creation of national experimental demonstration zones for an information economy, and develop the sharing economy. We will promote the rapid development of emerging forms of businesses such as online medical services and online education as well as those that integrate their offline and online presences. We will relax restrictions on market access for convergent products and services.
Chapter 27 Implement the National Big Data Strategy
We will make big data a fundamental strategic resource and fully implement a plan for its development, accelerating the opening, sharing, development, and application of data resources so as to help transform and upgrade industries and bring about innovations in social governance.
Opening and Sharing of Government Data
We will promote the efficient collection and integration of big data in all key areas and deepen correlation analysis and integrated utilization of government and social data so as to increase the precision and effectiveness of macroeconomic regulation, market supervision, social governance, and public services. We will accelerate efforts to facilitate inter-departmental sharing and use of data resources through unified platforms for sharing and exchanging government data. We will ensure that government information systems and public data are interconnected, open, and shared by moving faster to establish an open national platform for government data. We will create a government data release and sharing catalogue and publically release data resources in accordance with the law. We will conduct overall planning for the development of infrastructure such as national big data platforms and data centers. We will conduct research on the formulation of data sharing and protection laws and regulations and introduce regulations for the management of government information resources.
Sound Development of Big Data Industries
We will work to see the innovative application of big data in all industries, explore new forms and models of collaborative development between big data industries and traditional industries, and move faster to improve big data industrial chains. We will accelerate efforts to tackle key technological issues in fields such as massive data collection, storage, redaction, analysis, visualization, and privacy protection. We will promote the development of big data hardware and software products. We will improve public service support systems and ecosystems for big data industries and strengthen relevant standards and quality requirements.
Chapter 28 Strengthen Information Security
We will work to see that cybersecurity is developed in tandem with information technology, systems safeguarding national cybersecurity are improved, the protection of important information systems and data resources is strengthened, and network governance capacity improves in order to ensure national information security.
Better Protection of Data Resources
We will establish a big data security management system that uses categorization and multilevel management in order to safeguard the security, effectiveness, and reliability of data use. We will implement the big data security project, strengthen security over the collection, storage, usage, and release of data resources, strengthen security evaluations and protection for all types of public data resources in areas such as information release and sharing, and establish a mechanism for the assetization and
authorized use of internet enterprises’ data resources. We will strengthen personal data protection and crack down on the unlawful release or sale of such information.
Well-Conceived Cyberspace Governance
We will improve cyberspace governance to create a safe and civil online environment. We will establish a system of basic safeguards for cyberspace governance, refine internet security laws and regulations, and improve the effective registration of personal internet information and internet real-name authentication. We will establish a review system and a standards system for network security, strengthen detailed cyberspace management, clear out illegal and bad information, and ensure that online crime is punished in accordance with the law. We will improve response mechanisms for online and informational security emergencies. We will give impetus to the establishment of multilateral, democratic, and transparent international internet governance systems, and take an active part in international cooperation on the formulation of international rules relating to cyberspace security, the fight against online crime, and internet security technology and standards.
Full Protection of Important Information Systems
We will establish a system for protecting key information infrastructure and improve the design, development, and operational oversight mechanisms of important information systems affecting national security. We will focus our resources on making breakthroughs in key technologies for information management, information protection, security reviews, and foundational support in order to raise China’s information security capacity. We will strengthen the development of threat perception capabilities and continuous defense capabilities for core technological equipment in key information infrastructure. We will improve hierarchical protection systems for important information systems. We will improve security mechanisms managed both horizontally
and vertically for key industries, regions, and information systems. We will actively develop the information security industry.
Information Technology Projects
1. The National Broadband Agenda
§ Establish a high-speed, high-capacity optical telecommunications system;
§ Implement projects to extend broadband connectivity to rural villages and improve basic network infrastructure in small and medium cities in the central and western regions;
§ Expand international internet bandwidth capacity;
§ Plan for the development of 4G and subsequent evolutionary technologies;
§ Extend full 4G coverage to regions where it is needed.
2. Promoting application of the Internet of Things
§ Develop infrastructure and service platforms for uses of the Internet of Things;
§ Promote the development of demonstration projects of major applications of the Internet of Things;
§ Make extensive innovations in integrated applications and models of Internet of Things technology;
§ Enrich services through the application of the Internet of Things.
3. Cloud computing innovation and development
§ Support the development of public cloud service platforms;
§ Plan for the establishment of cloud computing and big data centers;
§ Improve the ability to provide cloud computing solutions;
§ Promote cloud application services in manufacturing, banking, people’s wellbeing, logistics, medical services, and other key industries;
§ Continuously improve cloud computing ecosystems.
4. “Internet +”
§ Promote “Internet +” in starting up businesses, innovation, collaborative manufacturing, smart energy, inclusive finance, public-interest services, high-efficiency logistics, e-commerce, convenient transportation, ecological conservation, artificial intelligence, e-taxation, convenient judicial services, education, training, scientific popularization, geographical information, credit, and cultural tourism;
§ Continuously expand areas which take advantage of the internet.
5. Big data applications
§ Establish a unified open platform for big data;
§ Progressively release public datasets;
§ Encourage enterprises and the general public to analyze and utilize data;
§ Promote the innovative use of big data in fields such as government governance, public services, industrial development, and technological research and development;
§ Promote the development of comprehensive big data experimental zones
in Guizhou and other areas.
6. A more IT-based government
§ Accelerate the development and utilization of a national unified e- government network;
§ Improve platforms for approval oversight, credit information, public resources trading, information on the reporting of price violations, and others;
§ Accelerate the development and utilization of a national database for basic information resources.
§ Support the development of e-commerce infrastructure;
§ Promote the innovation and adoption of e-commerce in key areas;
§ Promote the development of comprehensive experimental zones for cross- border e-commerce in Hangzhou and other areas so as to build international e- commerce thoroughfares.
§ Implement the national information security project;
§ Become better able to ensure security for key information infrastructure, important information systems, and classified information systems, and use them to better support industrial development;
§ Implement national science and technology projects for ensuring cyberspace security;
§ Make breakthroughs in key technologies such as core chips, basic software, key components, and major machinery systems;
§ Establish a national system for cyberspace security and security technology.
MODERN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORKS
We will expand the space for infrastructure construction and move faster to improve modern infrastructure networks, making them safer and more efficient as well as smart, eco- friendly, and interconnected, thereby ensuring they better play their role in supporting and leading economic and social development.
Chapter 29 Develop Better Modern Comprehensive Transportation Systems
With the aim of developing smart, integrated, and eco -friendly transportation networks, we will work to build a comprehensive transportation system that connects domestic and international transportation routes, extensively covers both urban and rural areas across regions, incorporates hubs with optimized functions, and provides integrated, efficient services.
Interconnected Domestic and International Transportation Networks
We will establish comprehensive transportation thoroughfares running from east to west and from north to south that ensure unobstructed and interconnected domestic and international transportation. We will step up construction on routes to and from Xinjiang and Tibet, and develop international transportation corridors starting from the northwestern, southwestern, and northeastern regions as well as transportation corridors along the Maritime Silk Road. To develop high-quality express transportation networks, we will step up work to put in place a network of high-speed railways, improve the network of national expressways, build local expressways as appropriate, and strengthen the ability of hub airports and main and regional airports to fulfill their respective functions. To develop better, more extensive basic transportation networks, we will accelerate railway construction in the central and western regions; move forward with upgrading and renovating ordinary national and provincial highways as well as places where they are bottlenecked; ensure greater levels of expertise are used in the development of coastal and inland water transportation facilities; step up construction of rural roads and general purpose airports; and work to ensure regional interconnection of oil and gas pipelines. We will also ensure better postal network services and strengthen the building of infrastructure for express delivery services.
Modern and Efficient Urban and Intercity Transportation
In urbanized areas, we will actively develop intercity and municipal (suburban) rail services and encourage the use of existing tracks to operate intercity rail services so as to form core networks of rail transit lines, running at different levels, which ensure efficient connections between small, medium, and large cities as well as towns. We will give priority to the development of public transportation, speed up the development of urban rail transit, bus rapid transit, and other forms of mass public transportation, and will encourage people to use eco-friendly transportation to get around. We will give impetus to the development of online vehicle booking and other forms of customized transportation services. We will strengthen rapid transit between city centers and outbound main roads and ensure faster and smoother traffic flow into and out of cities. We will step up efforts to develop urban parking facilities and terminals for postal and express delivery networks.
Integrated Multimodal Transportation Hubs
To achieve an optimal spatial distribution of hubs, we will develop comprehensive international transportation hubs in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and other cities; improve the standards of national, regional, and local comprehensive transportation hubs; channel greater energy into building major hubs in the central and western regions; move forward with efforts to turn major ports of entry in border areas into transportation hubs; and see that these transportation hubs play a better role in facilitating domestic and international transportation. We will improve the role of hubs as providers of comprehensive services, optimize transfer facilities and distribution and transportation networks, and work to ensure zero-distance passenger transfers and seamlessly integrated freight transportation, so as to achieve highly efficient coordination between different modes of transportation, make full use of integrated transportation, and increase the overall efficiency of transportation and logistics.
Low-Carbon, Smart, and Safe Transportation Services
We will make headway in the low-carbon development of transportation by seeing that resources are used intensively and economically and by promoting the application of standard modern transportation equipment and energy-efficient, environmentally friendly means of transport. We will accelerate the development of smart transportation; make wider use of advanced information technology and intelligent technology and equipment in transportation services; improve multimodal transport systems, intelligent management systems, and public information systems; and accelerate the development of multimodal transportation, so as to improve the quality and increase the profits of transportation services. We will tighten safety management over transportation and postal services and increase our capacity to ensure safety, respond to emergencies, and carry out emergency rescue. We will press ahead with reform in the taxi industry, promote market-based reform in the railway sector, and speed up reform of the airspace management system.
1. High-speed rail
Box 10 Transportation Projects
§ Speed up the improvement of high-speed rail networks:
§ Complete the Harbin-Beijing-Hong Kong (Macao), Lianyungang- Ürümqi, Shanghai-Kunming, and Guangzhou-Kunming lines;
§ Build the Beijing-Hong Kong (Taipei), Hohhot-Nanning, Beijing- Kunming, Baotou-Yinchuan-Haikou, Qingdao-Yinchuan, Lanzhou (Xining)- Guangzhou, Beijing-Lanzhou, and Chongqing-Xiamen lines;
§ Extend regional lines connecting high-speed railways.
§ The length of high-speed rail lines open to traffic will reach 30,000 kilometers, connecting more than 80% of all large cities.
§ Speed up the construction of the national expressway network, which consists of 7 radial expressways from Beijing, 11 north-south expressways, and 18 east- west expressways, as well as regional ring roads, parallel highways, and connecting roads;
§ Increase the density and improve the service of expressway networks in the Yangtze Economic Belt and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region; increase capacity around heavily congested sections of expressways;
§ The length of newly-built and upgraded expressways open to traffic will reach around 30,000 kilometers.
3. Coastal, Yangtze, border, and Belt and Road thoroughfares
§ Basically complete construction on a coastal high-speed railway from Dandong to Fangchenggang, a coastal expressway, and a high-speed railway along the Yangtze River from Shanghai to Chengdu;
§ Speed up the construction of highways along our borders;
§ Build railways along our borders such as the Hotan-Ruoqiang Railway, the Luoguhe-Laoheishan Railway along the border in the Northeast, and the Chengdu- Lhasa Railway;
§ Press ahead with construction of transborder thoroughfares between China and neighboring countries and thoroughfares along the Belt and Road routes;
§ Build logistics platforms for international freight trains in Ürümqi, Lanzhou, and other major hub cities along the Belt and Road routes;
§ Construct the Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge.
4. Civil airports
§ Build international hub airports:
§ Complete the construction of the new airport in Beijing;
§ Construct clusters of world-class airports in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta;
§ Speed up the construction of international aviation hubs in Harbin, Shenzhen, Kunming, Chengdu, Chongqing, Xi’an, Ürümqi, and other cities;
§ Strengthen the functions of regional hub airports.
§ Implement projects to rebuild, relocate, or expand some of the busiest main airports, while also building regional airports and general purpose airports;
§ Build cargo airports including that in Zhengzhou;
§ The number of civil airports will be increased by at least 50.
5. Harbor and shipping facilities
§ Improve and upgrade clusters of ports in the Bohai Sea rim, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta;
§ Speed up the construction of high-grade inland waterways on the Yangtze, Pearl-Xi, Huai, and Min rivers;
§ Make a major push to move forward with the construction of international shipping centers in Shanghai, Tianjin, Dalian, Xiamen, and other harbor cities;
§ Adopt an orderly approach in moving forward with the construction of specialized berths for containers, crude oil, and liquefied natural gas in coastal harbors;
§ Take steady steps to build international cruise terminals such as that on Phoenix Island, Hainan;
§ Increase the level of intelligent systems used in harbors.
6. City-cluster transportation
§ Within each city cluster develop a metropolitan area commuting transport model which ensures a commute of one to two hours between central cities and between central cities and nodal cities and a one hour commute between central cities and
§ Basically complete the construction of intercity rail networks for the
Beijing- Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze Delta, Pearl River Delta, middle-reach Yangtze, Central Plain, Chengdu-Chongqing region, and Shandong Peninsular city clusters; put in place the framework of intercity rail networks for other city clusters;
§ Carry out demonstration projects for municipal (suburban) rail lines.
7. Urban transportation
§ Improve urban rail transit networks in megacities and supercities and move faster to establish rail transit networks in cities with populations of over 3 million; improve urban public transportation systems; and build high-density parking facilities;
§ Open approximately 3,000 kilometers of new urban rail transit lines to traffic;
§ Ensure smooth traffic flow on urban roads and at busy entrances and exits of outbound highways; and in cities, where conditions permit, plan and construct ring roads.
8. Rural transportation
§ Continue to build rural roads:
§ Move forward with rural road interconnection in areas where conditions allow;
§ Upgrade county and township roads, build safety protection facilities on rural roads, and renovate dilapidated bridges;
§ Intensify efforts to maintain rural roads;
§ Ensure all administrative villages are linked to paved roads and shuttle bus services where conditions permit.
§ Improve the infrastructure for postal and express delivery services in rural areas and in the western region of the country, and ensure every village has access to postal services.
9. Transportation hubs
§ Giving priority to the development of high-speed railways, intercity rail transit, and airports, build a number of open, integrated multimodal passenger transportation hubs, give impetus to the development of same-platform and multilevel- platform passenger transfers, and step up efforts to develop rapid transit between major passenger transportation hubs in cities, so as to reduce the distance and time of passenger transfers;
§ Build a number of multimodal freight transportation hubs to improve the efficiency of transloading;
§ Encourage development of city complexes built around transportation hubs.
10. Intelligent transportation
§ Promote the internet-based operation of transportation infrastructure and means of transportation and the digitalization of operation information, accelerate development of the Internet of Vehicles and the Internet of Vessels, improve early warning systems for failures and systems for operational maintenance and intelligent scheduling, press ahead with vehicle automation, the digitalization of facilities, and the increasing use of smart operations;
Chapter 30 Build a Modern Energy System
We will make a strong push to advance the energy revolution, giving impetus to a transformation in the way energy is produced and used, improving the energy supply mix, and elevating the efficiency of energy utilization. We will build a modern energy system that is clean, low-carbon, safe, and efficient, and will safeguard the country’s energy security.
Section 1 The Energy Mix
We will coordinate the development of hydropower with ecological conservation while giving priority to the latter; and with a focus on building main hydropower plants in key water basins, we will work systematically to develop hydropower resources in the southwest. We will continue to give impetus to the development of wind and photovoltaic power and provide strong support for solar thermal energy. Focusing particularly on the building of a coastal nuclear power plant belt, we will ensure adequate safety measures are taken in developing demonstration initiatives and projects in nuclear power generation. We will accelerate the development of biomass and geothermal energy and actively exploit tidal power in coastal areas. We will improve supportive policies for power generation from wind, solar, and biomass energy. We will optimize the development of national comprehensive energy centers and step up efforts to ensure the cleaner and more efficient use of coal. We will restrict coal resource development in the east of the country, limit it in the central and northeastern regions, and optimize it in the west; make progress in achieving more eco-friendly exploitation and transformations of large coal production centers; and encourage the application of new technologies in the development of coal based power generation. We will strengthen onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration and exploitation, take well- ordered measures to relax control over mining rights, and actively exploit natural gas,
coal seam gas, and shale oil and gas. We will move forward with the transformation and upgrading of the oil refining industry, implement an action plan for improving the quality of refined petroleum products, and develop new clean oils such as biofuels.
Modern Energy Storage and Transportation Networks
We will coordinate the development of multiple forms of transportation for coal, electricity, oil, and gas; step up efforts to build energy storage and peak shaving facilities; and move faster to develop safe and reliable modern energy storage and transportation networks which enable integrated energy development and free-flowing domestic and international energy transportation. We will strengthen efforts to build trans-regional core energy transportation networks; complete construction on the Inner Mongolia- Jiangxi north-to-south coal line; and optimize the construction of main power grids and trans-regional power transmission routes. We will accelerate the construction of strategic land corridors for importing oil and gas. We will make progress in building oil and gas storage facilities and strengthen capacity for oil and gas storage and peak shaving.
Smart Energy Systems
We will accelerate smart development across the entire energy sector and all areas of its operation in order to make energy development more sustainable and adaptable. We will adapt to the development of distributed energy and the diversified demands of users, improve demand-side management of electric power, speed up the development of smart power grids, and make power grids and the power generation and demand sides more mutually responsive. We will promote significant integration of new technologies between the energy sector and other sectors such as information technology; coordinate the development of energy infrastructure and communications, transportation, and other infrastructure; and build an energy internet that enables the
coordinated development, integration, and complementarity of power generation, transmission, loading, and storage.
Energy Development Projects
1. High-efficiency smart power systems
§ Speed up the development of quality peak shaving power sources such as pumped-storage hydroelectric plants, main hydropower plants, and natural gas peaking power plants;
§ Give impetus to the development of storage power plant and efficient power plant demonstration projects;
§ Strengthen integration and complementarity between different power sources and storage facilities;
§ Make power systems more adaptive and efficient.
2. Clean and efficient coal utilization
§ Implement the upgrading action plan for energy conservation and emissions reductions in coal based power generation:
§ Carry out nationwide upgrades of coal-fired power units to achieve ultra-low emissions and energy efficiency;
§ Ensure average coal consumption per kilowatt-hour is kept below 310 grams in existing power plants and below 300 grams in new power plants.
§ Encourage the use of backpressure thermal power units for heating and develop combined multi-source heating, cooling, and power systems;
§ Increase the proportion of coal used for power generation.
3. Renewable energy
§ Begin construction on 60 gigawatts of regular hydropower capacity, giving priority to hydropower development in the southwest;
§ Coordinate the development of end-use markets and power transmission routes; take ordered steps to optimize the development of wind energy and photovoltaic energy in the northern, northeastern, and northwestern regions and in coastal areas;
§ Accelerate the development of dispersed wind power and distributed photovoltaic power in the central, eastern, and southern regions;
§ Carry out solar thermal energy demonstration projects;
§ Build the national new energy integrated demonstration zone in Ningxia, and actively move forward with the development of demonstration zones for renewable energy such as those in Qinghai and Zhangjiakou.
4. Nuclear power
§ Complete the Sanmen and Haiyang AP1000 projects;
§ Develop demonstration projects for Hualong-1 nuclear technology in Fuqing, Fujian and in Fangchenggang, Guangxi;
§ Begin construction on the CAP1400 demonstration project in Rongcheng, Shandong;
§ Begin construction on a number of coastal nuclear power plants and
accelerate construction on the third phase of the Tianwan nuclear power plant;
§ Actively carry out preliminary work for inland nuclear power plant projects;
§ Move more quickly to conduct feasibility studies and drive forward the development of large commercial reprocessing plants;
§ Installed capacity of nuclear power plants in operation will reach 58 gigawatts, with over 30 gigawatts of nuclear-generation capacity under construction;
§ Strengthen the development of systems for ensuring nuclear fuel.
5. Unconventional oil and gas
§ Build coal seam gas industrial bases in:
§ the Qinshui Basin;
§ the eastern Ordos Basin;
§ Bishuixing, Guizhou.
§ Accelerate the exploration and exploitation of shale gas in:
§ the Changning-Weiyuan region, Sichuan;
§ Fuling, Chongqing;
§ Zhaotong, Yunnan;
§ Yan’an, Shaanxi;
§ the Zunyi-Tongren region, Guizhou.
§ Give impetus to tight oil, oil sands, and deep-water oil prospecting and exploitation and to the comprehensive development and utilization of oil shale;
§ Move forward with the prospecting and commercial pilot production of natural gas hydrate resources.
6. Energy transmission routes
§ Build electricity transmission routes for hydropower bases and large coal- fired power bases and, while building the 12 power transmission routes included in the action plan for air pollution prevention and control, focus on constructing power transmission routes from the southwestern, northwestern, northern, and northeastern regions;
§ Step up work on the development of strategic land corridors for importing oil and gas and related trunk pipeline networks in the northwestern, northeastern, and southwestern regions;
§ Improve the backbone pipeline networks for natural gas transmission, including the west-to-east gas transmission project, the Shaanxi-Beijing gas pipeline, and the project to transport natural gas from Sichuan to the central and eastern regions.
7. Energy storage facilities
§ Complete the second phase of the state petroleum reserves project and start preliminary work for the follow-up project;
§ Strengthen work on building reserves for refined oil products;
§ Build natural gas reserves, increasing the scale of gas storage and emergency response capacity for gas peak shaving;
§ Build coal storage and transportation facilities in areas where coal is in short supply and in coal distribution centers, and improve the emergency coal reserve system;
Chapter 31 Strengthen Water Security
We will move faster to improve water conservancy infrastructure networks and work to ensure the carefully-planned development, rational allocation, economical use, and efficient utilization of water resources so as to strengthen the country’s capacity to ensure water security.
Water Resource Allocation
We will conduct feasibility studies and take steady steps to move forward with a number of major water diversion projects, key projects connecting river and lake systems, and key water source projects; coordinate and strengthen efforts to build small and medium water conservancy facilities; and move more quickly to construct safe and reliable regional water supply networks linking different water sources to ensure supply in both urban and rural areas. We will implement region-specific counter- drought water source projects and step up efforts to develop emergency and backup water sources for cities. We will exploit and utilize surface water and different kinds of unconventional water sources in a carefully- planned way and impose rigid controls on groundwater mining. We will take systematic measures to improve river basin environments, ensure adequate water to preserve river ecosystems, and improve capacity for water conservation and storage. We will implement well-planned steps to develop and harness the water of cross-border river basins, and deepen cross-border water cooperation with neighboring countries. We will carry out weather modification activities.
Comprehensive Flood Control and Mitigation Systems
We will strengthen the development of key projects to manage rivers and lakes and continue to reinforce the levees of major rivers and lakes, improve waterway management, carry out water control projects, and build flood detention basins. We will move more quickly in our work on harnessing small and medium rivers, flash flood prevention and disaster management, and the reinforcement of dilapidated reservoirs and sluices; and work to ensure that key seawalls reach set standards. We will strengthen meteorological and hydrological monitoring, rainfall forecasting, hydrological regime predictions, and flood risk management, improving our ability to prevent and mitigate damage caused by flooding.
§ Carry out large irrigation projects, including:
the Nierji water conservancy project on the Nen River; the Songyuan irrigation project in Jilin;
Xiangjiaba Dam in Sichuan; Centianhe Reservoir in Hunan;
the Liaofang water control project in Jiangxi; the Hongling irrigation project in Hainan;
the irrigation of large areas on both the southern and northern banks of Xiaolangdi Reservoir in Henan.
§ The total area of irrigated farmland will reach more than 66.67 million hectares.
2. Water diversion
§ Carry out major projects, including:
the Songhua River to central Jilin diversion project and the linking of rivers and lakes in western Jilin;
the project to divert water from the Yellow River to Baiyangdian Lake in
Hebei; Huai River;
Qinghai; Mongolia; Fujian;
the project to divert water from the Yangtze River to Lake Chao and the the Han River to the Wei River, Shaanxi diversion project;
the Jiayan, Guizhou water control project;
the Yao River to central Gansu (phase II) diversion project; the Jinsha River to central Yunnan diversion project;
the project to divert water from Datong River to the Huang River in
the project to divert water from Chuoer River to the Xiliao River in Inner the allocation of water resources to Pingtan and the Min River Delta in
the allocation of water resources in northern Hubei.
§ Press ahead with the follow-up projects for the eastern and central routes of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project.
3. Major water sources
§ Construct large reservoirs, including: Lalho in Tibet;
Zhuxi in Zhejiang; Huokou in Fujian; Fendou in Heilongjiang; Mangshan in Hunan; Agang in Yunnan.
§ Start construction on major water source projects, including: Jiangxiang in Anhui;
Lijiayan in Sichuan; Huangjiawan in Guizhou.
§ Carry out counter-drought emergency water source projects;
§ Intensify efforts to develop medium reservoirs and other key regional water sources.
4. Projects to manage rivers and lakes
§ Construct water control projects for river basins, including: the Datengxia project on the Xi River;
the Chushandian project on the Huai River; the Artashi project in Xinjiang.
§ Basically complete work on harnessing 244 major rivers covering over 3,000 square kilometers of drainage areas, including projects to:
strengthen flood prevention along the primary channels of the Heilong, Songhua, and Nen rivers;
control the flow regime of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze; build levees on the lower reaches and improve the waterways along the
middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River;
carry out a new round of major water conservancy projects to harness the Huai River and manage Lake Tai;
ensure the security of flood detention basins;
move more quickly to harness small and medium rivers such as the Yarkant River.
§ Conduct preliminary work on the:
Guxian water conservancy project on the Yellow River; Poyang Lake water conservancy project;
Heishanxia hydropower plant on the Yellow River.
In committed pursuit of people-centered urbanization based on city clusters, supported by the comprehensive carrying capacity of cities, and safeguarded by institutional innovations, we will step up the pace of new urbanization, make further progress in building a new socialist countryside, strive to bridge the gap between urban and rural development, and facilitate urban and rural integration.
Chapter 32 Promote Urban Residency for People with Rural Household Registration Living in Urban Areas
We will coordinate the reform of the household registration system and efforts to ensure more equitable access to basic public services, and improve incentives for granting urban residency to permanent residents from rural areas, giving impetus to more people to settle in urban areas.
Section 1 Household Registration Reform
We will make progress in efforts to see that people who have moved from rural to urban areas and are able to find stable employment and settle into urban life can move their families with them and obtain urban residency, and that they enjoy the same rights and share the same responsibilities as other urban residents. In granting urban residency to people from rural areas, we will prioritize rural students moving up to the next level of education in an urban area, armed forces personnel settling in an urban area, people who have lived in an urban area for at least five years and have moved their families with them, and new generation migrant workers. Cities at the provincial capital level and below should lift all restrictions on granting residency to college and university graduates, skilled workers, vocational school graduates, and those who have returned from studying abroad. We will promote the practice of linking professional and technical titles and skill levels with the granting of residency in large cities. Large and medium cities must not adopt means to restrict access to permanent residence such as requirements related to the purchase of housing, investment, tax payment, or point accumulation systems. Megacities and supercities should implement differentiated policies for granting permanent residency using stable legitimate employment, housing (including rented housing), number of years of participation in urban social insurance schemes, and number of years of continuous residence as the main criteria for eligibility. We will ensure that local governments assume greater responsibility for moving
forward with the granting of urban residency to more people who have moved from rural to urban areas.
The Residence Card System
We will fully implement the provisional regulations on residence cards and see that the residence card system covers all permanent urban residents without urban residence registration. We will ensure the entitlement of residence card holders to compulsory education and employment, health, and other basic public services specified by the state in the cities where they are resident. We will encourage all levels of local governments to continually expand the scope of services for residence card holders, improve service standards, and narrow the gap between card holders and registered urban residents.
Mechanisms to Promote Urban Residency
We will improve the mechanism linking the transfer payments a local government receives to the number of former rural residents granted urban residency in its jurisdiction, establish the mechanism linking increases in the amount of land designated for urban development in a locality to the number of former rural residents granted urban residency there, and put in place a mechanism linking the subsidies for infrastructure development a city receives from government development funds to the number of former rural residents to whom it grants urban residency. We will ensure that the rights of people from rural areas who hold permanent urban residency are protected in relation to the rural land they have contracted, the land on which their rural housing is built, and their share in proceeds from rural collective undertakings, and we will support and guide their voluntary transfer of such rights in return for compensation in accordance with the law. We will intensify efforts to move forward with comprehensive new urbanization trials.
Chapter 33 Improve the Distribution and Layout of Urban Areas
We will work faster in pursuit of an urbanization strategy which stresses reasonable distribution and coordinated development of cities of all sizes and small towns and which combines two horizontal axes—land bridges and the Yangtze River— and three vertical axes—China’s coastline, the Beijing- Harbin and Beijing-Guangzhou railways, and the Baotou-Kunming Railway.
City Cluster Development
We will give a boost to city clusters in the eastern region; build world- class city clusters in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta; and make the city clusters on the Shandong Peninsula and the west side of the Taiwan Straits more open and competitive. We will cultivate city clusters in the central and western regions; develop the city clusters in the northeast and the Central Plains region, around the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and in the Chengdu-Chongqing region and the Guanzhong Plains region; and plan and guide the development of city clusters in Beibu Bay, central Shanxi, the Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin region, central Guizhou, central Yunnan, the Lanzhou-Xining region, the area around the Ningxia section of the Yellow River, and the northern foothills of the Tianshan Mountains, creating more growth poles to support regional development. We will promote the development of the urban agglomerations centered around Lhasa and Kashi. We will establish sound mechanisms for coordinating the development of city clusters and promote coordination in industrial division of labor, infrastructure, ecological conservation, and environmental improvement between cities in different regions in order to achieve the integration and efficient development of city clusters.
Central Cities Leading the Development of Surrounding Areas
We will develop a number of central cities and ensure they better serve their respective regions. Megacities and supercities should move faster to become more international, relieve their central areas as appropriate of functions nonessential to their roles, strengthen commuting efficiency and integrated development with neighboring towns and cities, and promote the establishment of metropolitan areas. Large and medium cities should accelerate industrial transformation and upgrading, expand industrial and service chains oriented toward the interior, and create growth nodes for driving the development of their regions. We will define well-conceived growth boundaries for central areas of cities and promote a shift in city development from relying mainly on outward expansion to focusing on the improvement of quality.
Small and Medium Cities, and Distinctive Towns
We will accelerate the development of small and medium cities, with efforts aimed at improving quality and increasing quantity. We will guide the distribution of industrial projects in these cities and in county towns, improve municipal infrastructure and public service facilities, and promote the allocation of quality education, medical care, and other resources for public services to small and medium cities and small towns. We will work more quickly to expand the functions of larger towns with populations of 100,000 or over, conferring on them part of the administrative authority enjoyed at the county level, and specify the standards for establishing cities and districts so that counties and large towns that meet criteria can be turned into cities. In line with local conditions, we will develop attractive small towns that are distinctive in character and integrate industrial and urban development. We will improve the functions of border ports.
Chapter 34 Develop Harmonious and Pleasant Cities
We will transform the way cities develop, improve urban governance capacity, redouble efforts to prevent and control urban maladies, continuously improve the
quality of the environment, living standards, and the competitiveness of our cities, and work to create cities that are harmonious and pleasant to live in, that are full of vitality, and that have their own unique character.
A New Style of City
We will build green cities by adjusting the scale of cities in accordance with their resource and environmental carrying capacities, using eco-friendly planning, design, and construction standards, and carrying out initiatives to build ecological corridors and restore ecosystems. We will build smart cities as we strengthen modern information infrastructure and promote the development of big data and the Internet of Things. We will build innovative cities by making full use of the concentrations of creative resources found in cities to develop business parks and cradles of innovation. We will build cities of culture through efforts to make cities more open and inclusive, strengthen the protection of cultural and natural heritage, and keep historical heritage alive. We will strengthen the development, use, and regulation of urban spaces and build high-density and public transit-oriented compact cities with integrated functions.
Section 2 Urban Infrastructure
We will create modern, safe, and efficient urban infrastructure systems with rational layouts, complete sets of facilities, and a full range of functions. We will accelerate the upgrading and building of urban water supply facilities. We will work faster to upgrade and build new municipal pipelines and other underground infrastructure. We will step up efforts to improve urban roads, car parking and traffic safety facilities, and urban transport facilities for pedestrians and cyclists. We will move forward with building accessible facilities in all cities. We will ensure strict compliance with regulations requiring that kindergartens and schools be developed to accompany the building of new residential areas and strict compliance with standards requiring that newly built residential communities come with parking spaces and charging facilities.
We will strengthen the development of facilities for preventing flooding and waterlogging and managing water flow as well as the development of parks, green spaces, and other such facilities for supporting urban ecosystems, support the development of sponge cities, and improve urban public facilities. We will work to disaster proof urban buildings and infrastructure.
Rundown Areas and Dilapidated Housing
We will basically complete the rebuilding of rundown urban areas and the renovation of dilapidated urban housing. We will better integrate the rebuilding of rundown urban areas with urban renewal and industrial transformation and upgrading, speed up work to rebuild concentrated and contiguous rundown areas and urban “villages,” move forward step by step with the comprehensive improvement of old residential communities and the renovation of dilapidated housing and dormitory-style housing, and extend the policy on rebuilding rundown areas to cover all key towns around the country. We will improve supporting infrastructure and strengthen project quality oversight.
Section 4 Urban Governance
We will develop new forms of urban governance, reform urban management and law enforcement systems, and promote refined, life- cycle, and cooperative management. We will make innovations in the concepts and methods used in urban planning; properly define the scale, growth boundaries, development intensity, and protected space of cities; and strengthen planning and regulation to achieve multi- layered urban spaces, coordination among different spatial layers, a coherent overall style and look, and cultural continuity. We will promote well-conceived design for all cities and make headway in organic urban renewal, and encourage the regeneration and transformation of cities. We will develop practical, economical, green, and visually pleasing buildings, improve the level of technique, safety standards, and construction
project quality in building, and promote the use of prefabricated modules and steel understructures.
Chapter 35 Improve the Housing Supply System
We will establish a housing supply system whereby government plays the main role in providing basic housing while the market plays the main role in meeting the multi-layered demand for housing, and we will improve housing supply and demand structures, steadily improve the quality of people’s housing, and better ensure housing for everyone.
Section 1 Buying and Renting
We will deepen reform of the housing system with the aim of meeting the housing needs of new urban residents and establishing a housing system that promotes both buying and renting. We will support residents who are not in a position to buy, particularly those without registered urban residency, in renting housing, and provide eligible families with monetary rental assistance. We will extend public rental housing policies to cover non-registered urban residents and develop these policies to enable assistance through the provision of monetary subsidies. We will improve the government employee housing policy.
The Real Estate Market
We will improve the housing supply structure, promote balance between market supply and demand, and ensure that the real estate market operates smoothly. In areas where demand for housing far outstrips supply, we will increase as appropriate the
amount of land available for residential development. In areas with relatively large inventories of commodity housing, we will steadily relieve housing inventory, expand effective demand for housing, and increase the proportion of direct monetary housing subsidies provided during the rebuilding of rundown areas. We will actively develop the rental market, encourage both natural person investors and different types of institutional investors to purchase commodity housing stock, expand rental market supply, and encourage the development of enterprises specializing mainly in rentals. We will promote mergers and acquisitions in the real estate industry, increase the concentration of the industry, and pilot the use of trust funds for real estate investment. We will develop new forms of business such as tourist real estate, senior citizen real estate, and cultural real estate. We will accelerate the modernization of the housing industry and improve the overall quality of housing.
Section 3 Housing Support
We will bring residence card holders within the scope of urban government- subsidized housing policies. We will coordinate planning for developing government- subsidized housing, rebuilding rundown areas, and developing supporting facilities, ensure the quality of construction, and make everyday living and getting around more convenient for residents. We will improve supporting policies related to investment, credit, land, and taxes and fees. We will use multiple channels to increase the supply of public rental housing. We will both ensure adequate housing and provide monetary subsidies, and gradually grant more rental subsidies. We will improve the mechanisms for investing in and operating government-subsidized housing and for handling eligibility-related procedures.
Chapter 36 Promote Coordinated Urban and Rural Development
We will promote coordination between the development of new urbanization and the building of a new countryside, improve the ability of county economies to support and lead economic development in their surrounding areas, promote the
balanced allocation of public resources between urban and rural areas, expand the space for rural development, and bring about a pattern of common development between urban and rural areas.
Section 1 Distinctive County Economies
We will cultivate and develop specialized county economies that are full of vitality and characteristic of their local areas, and strengthen the ability of counties to take on functions formerly performed by cities and lead rural development. Based on competitive resources, we will promote the development of intensive agro-processing, the rural service industry, and labor-intensive industries, actively explore new models for rural areas to take over industries formerly located in urban areas, and integrate rural areas into regional industry chains and production networks. We will guide the concentration of rural secondary and tertiary industries in county towns, key towns and townships, and industrial parks. We will increase the decision-making power of counties over development and improve the basic assurances for adequate county-level financial resources.
Beautiful and Pleasant Rural Areas
We will promote rural reform and institutional innovation, strengthen the service functions of collective economic organizations, and stimulate the vitality of rural development. We will improve rural working conditions and living standards throughout the country. We will draw up research- based plans for the spatial distribution of village and town development, farmland protection, village locations, and ecological conservation schemes. We will accelerate the transformation of rural broadband, roads, and dilapidated housing, as well as drinking water, lighting, environmental sanitation, and fire-fighting facilities. We will start a new round of initiatives to transform and upgrade rural grids, ensuring that a 99.8% power supply reliability rate is achieved. We will implement a project to consolidate and advance
efforts to ensure the safety of drinking water in rural areas. We will improve conditions in rural schools and see that teachers enjoy better working conditions and higher living standards, and we will strengthen community-level medical and healthcare institutions and step up efforts to develop the workforce of rural doctors. We will establish sound care and service systems for women, children, and elderly people left behind in rural areas. We will strengthen social governance in rural areas, improve the rural crime prevention and control system, and intensify efforts to ensure safety in rural areas. We will strengthen rural cultural development, devote energy to initiatives to foster exemplary households and families, and cultivate healthy rural practices, fine family practices, and a new rural culture of virtue. We will undertake specific initiatives to combat undesirable rural practices and deal with prominent rural problems such as illegitimate religious activities. We will develop exemplary environmentally friendly towns and villages, take comprehensive measures to improve rural living environments, redouble efforts to protect traditional villages, houses, and towns and villages with unique ethnic features, ensure rural civility is passed on to new generations, and build a charming, unspoiled, and harmonious countryside that is a beautiful and pleasant place to live.
Balanced Public Resource Allocation
We will make coordinated plans for developing urban and rural infrastructure networks, improve long-term investment mechanisms for rural infrastructure, and promote the integration of urban and rural infrastructure related to the water supply, power supply, roads, gas supply, and telecommunications as well as the unified distribution and development of urban and rural facilities for ecological conservation and environmental protection. We will give particular attention to the development of social programs in rural areas and those cities and towns that have welcomed more former rural residents, promote the extension of urban public services to rural areas, and ensure that both urban and rural areas gradually come to adopt the same basic public service systems and standards.
§ Make progress in granting urban residency to approximately 100 million former rural residents and other permanent urban residents without urban household registration;
§ Accelerate the rebuilding of urban “villages” and rundown urban areas with a combined population of approximately 100 million;
§ Guide the process of urbanization for around 100 million people in the central and western regions as they move to city clusters, small and medium cities, county seats, and key towns near their places of origin.
2. Emerging small and medium cities
§ Using the size of the permanent population, population density, and the size of the economy as criteria for eligibility, move faster to expand the overall functions of eligible county seats and large towns, with the aim of developing a host of emerging small and medium cities that have a complete range of functions and are distinctive in character.
3. Distinctive small towns
§ Promote the development of small towns that possess unique resources, geographical advantages, or cultural heritage;
§ Help these towns to increase their functions and expand their powers, and provide them with greater financial and other support to enable them to use their distinctive features to develop industries in areas such as leisure and tourism, commerce and logistics, information technology, smart manufacturing, science and technology, education, and folk culture.
4. Smart cities
§ Make full use of modern information technology and big data to develop a number of exemplary new-style smart cities, focusing on developing smart infrastructure, convenient public services, and refined social governance.
5. Green and forest cities
Build a number of exemplary green cities, eco-friendly garden cities, and forest cities by
§ Promoting the construction of eco-friendly buildings;
§ Making green transport universal;
§ Spreading the use of supply systems for new energy such as distributed energy resources and shallow geothermal energy;
§ Working faster to achieve the electrification of public transport;
§ Encouraging eco-friendly lifestyles;
§ Implementing urban landscaping projects;
§ Increasing urban forest and green coverage.
6. Sponge cities
§ Support the development of sponge-like buildings, residential areas, roads, squares, parks, and green spaces by improving drainage and rainwater control and regulation facilities in urban areas and taking measures to enable rainwater to be absorbed, retained, stored, purified, used, or drained.
7. Underground utility tunnels
§ Move forward with the development of both trunk and feeder utility tunnels in
DEVELOPMENT COORDINATED BETWEEN REGIONS
Based on the master strategy for regional development and using, as guidance, the Belt and Road Initiative, the integration of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, and the Yangtze Economic Belt, we will promote the formation of north-south and east-west intersecting economic belts primarily along the coastline, the Yangtze River, and major transportation routes as well as a pattern of coordinated development between regions that ensures the mobile and well-ordered flow of factors of production, effective functional zoning, equitable access to basic public services, and development that is within the carrying capacity of the environment and natural resources.
Chapter 37 Implement the Master Strategy for Regional Development
We will implement the master strategy for regional development so as to develop the western region, revitalize northeast China, fuel the rise of the central region, and support the eastern region as it leads the country. We will also make innovations to policies and improve mechanisms for regional development, promote coordinated, collaborative, and common development between regions, and strive to narrow the gaps in regional development.
Section 1 Development of the Western Region
We will give high priority to implementing the strategy for the large- scale development of the western region and ensure that the Belt and Road Initiative is able to better drive development in this region. We will accelerate the development of interregional and international corridors as well as regional hubs, improve infrastructure, and work to achieve significant improvements of transportation in border and remote areas with poor external connectivity. We will develop industries that take advantage of local strengths such as those related to the processing of green agricultural products, culture, and tourism. We will establish a number of national industrial transfer demonstration zones and develop industry clusters. Relying on areas of robust resource and environmental carrying capacity, we will increase the proportion of resources subject to local processing and conversion. We will strengthen the effective development and efficient use of water resources. We will intensify ecological conservation and environmental protection and improve the capabilities of eco-security barriers. We will improve long-term stable channels for funding, and continue to increase transfer payments and government investment. We will accelerate efforts to make access to basic public services more equitable. We will increase the openness of gateway cities and improve the performance of the open economy.
The Northeast and Other Old Industrial Regions
We will accelerate market-oriented reforms of systems and mechanisms, promote structural adjustment, and increase support aimed at improving the developmental vitality, internal impetuses, and overall competitiveness of the northeast and other old industrial regions. We will accelerate the development of a service- oriented government, improve the business environment, and expedite development of the private sector. We will make innovation a powerful force for development in the northeast by developing and encouraging business startups and innovation, supporting the development of technology and industry innovation centers, and bringing together skilled personnel and other factors necessary for innovation. We will accelerate the development of modern large-scale agriculture, ensure that the quality and performance of traditionally competitive industries improve, develop industrial transformation and upgrading demonstration zones, and promote the development of advanced equipment manufacturing centers and strategic centers for major technology and equipment. We will support the transformation and development of resource-dependent cities and organize and implement a number of citizen wellbeing projects such as upgrading old urban areas and improving conditions in areas plagued by land subsidence. We will accelerate the development of high-speed railway networks and power delivery tunnels. We will deepen state asset and SOE reforms, and accelerate efforts to complete the reform of collectively owned businesses operated by SOEs. We will support the establishment of platforms for cooperation with Russia, Japan, and the Republic of Korea.
Rise of the Central Region
We will formulate and implement a plan for promoting the rise of the central region in this new period, improve policy support, promote the integration of urbanization with industrial support and population agglomeration, and form important strategic support zones. We will support the central region in accelerating the development of a modern multi- dimensional transport system and a modern logistics system that connects north and south China and east and west China, and cultivate and
develop growth poles of city clusters and metropolitan areas along the Yangtze River and major transportation routes. We will ensure the orderly relocation of industries to the central region, accelerate the development of modern agriculture and advanced manufacturing, support the transformation and development of the energy industry, set up a number of centers for emerging strategic and high-tech industries, and develop a number of industrial clusters. We will strengthen the protection and improvement of water environments and promote the development of the Poyang and Dongting lake ecological economic zones as well as the Han and Huai river ecological economic belts. We will accelerate the development of the Zhengzhou Airport Economic Zone. We will support the development of an open, inland economy.
Support for the Eastern Region
We will support the eastern region in better supporting and guiding development in other parts of the country, and work to see it better facilitate the development of surrounding areas. We will accelerate the shift toward innovation- driven development and work to make this region an internationally influential center of innovation. We will step up efforts to promote industrial upgrading, guide the development of emerging industries and modern service sectors, and create world-class manufacturing centers. We will accelerate the establishment of fully open economic systems and participate in international cooperation and competition on a higher level. We will ensure that the eastern region leads the country in terms of equitable access to public services, social civility, and ecological and environmental quality. We will promote the cooperative and coordinated development of areas surrounding the Bohai Sea. We will support the Pearl River Delta as it leads opening up, innovation, transformation, and upgrading, and accelerate the development of science and technology centers and industrial innovation centers in Shenzhen. We will deepen cooperation in the greater Pearl River Delta region and promote accelerated development of the Pearl River-Xi River economic belt.
Mechanisms for Coordinated Development between Regions
We will make innovations in mechanisms for regional cooperation and strengthen coordination and cooperation between regions and within river basins. We will improve the system and measures for providing assistance through pairing programs, and establish mutual assistance mechanisms for the benefit and development of all parties through the building of platforms for cooperation such as “enclave economies” and joint development zones. We will establish sound mechanisms to balance inter-regional interests such as compensation mechanisms for ecological conservation and resource development. We will encourage innovation in the systems, mechanisms, and operational models of new national zones, national comprehensive experimental reform zones, key development and opening up experimental zones, and other platforms.
Chapter 38 Promote the Integration of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei
We will pursue a model of regional integration for Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei that is mutually beneficial and draws on complementary strengths, adjust and improve the region’s economic and spatial structures, explore new models for the optimal development of densely populated areas with intensive economic activity, and develop a world-class city cluster with Beijing, China’s capital, at its core, leading the development of the region surrounding the Bohai Sea as well as further inland in north China.
Relieving Beijing of Its Nonessential Functions
We will actively and prudently relieve Beijing of functions nonessential to its role as China’s capital and work to lower the population density of its main districts. We will focus on the relocation of energy-intensive and high- water-consuming enterprises, regional logistics centers and special markets, a portion of education, medical, and training institutions, and a portion of administrative and public service institutions and enterprise headquarters, as well as others. We will ensure sound development of a sub-
administrative center for the Beijing municipal government. We will plan and develop relocation areas and micro centers for functions nonessential to Beijing’s role as China’s capital.
The Spatial Layout and Functions
The spatial layout for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will be developed around the idea of creating “a single core, twin engines, three industrial belts, four functional zones, and multiple nodes.” This will involve developing Beijing as the core, strengthening integration and cooperation between Beijing and Tianjin as the region’s two leading economic engines, developing the three industrial belts of the Beijing- Tianjin, Beijing-Baoding-Shijiazhuang, and Beijing-Tangshan-Qinhuangdao regions, designating and ensuring the geographical boundaries and developmental focuses of the region’s four functional zones, and developing the carrying capacity, service capabilities, and manufacturing of a number of intraregional local urban centers. We will improve the industrial layout and promote the development of the Beijing- Tianjin-Hebei region as a collaborative innovation community. Beijing will focus on developing its knowledge economy, service economy, and green economy, and accelerate structural development of high-tech, superior, and cutting-edge industries. Tianjin will optimize and develop advanced manufacturing, emerging strategic industries, and the modern service sector, and develop a national advanced manufacturing research and development center as well as a financial innovation and operation demonstration zone. Hebei Province will take on functions transferred from Beijing and work on the application of scientific and technological advances from Beijing and Tianjin, and it will focus on the development of major national modern commercial logistics centers, new- type industrialization centers, and experimental zones for industrial transformation and upgrading.
An Integrated Modern Transport Network
We will develop efficient, dense rail transit networks, strengthen the development of main railway lines, accelerate the development of intercity and intracity (suburban) railways while gradually forming them into networks, make maximal use of existing intercity and intracity (suburban) railcar capacity, and ensure passenger train services cover all cities at or above the prefectural level. We will improve the network of expressways and upgrade main national and provincial highways. We will establish port clusters based on coordination and division of work, improve port transport and distribution systems, and establish a new model of coordinated oversight over maritime affairs. We will develop world-class aviation hubs and establish cooperative mechanisms for air transport.
Environmental Capacity and Ecological Space
We will establish a regional monitoring network, early-warning system, and coordinated response mechanisms for ecosystems and the environment, and reduce total pollutant emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin- Hebei region. We will better coordinate efforts to prevent and control air pollution, implement gasification projects in key areas of heavy air pollution, and ensure that the concentration of fine particulate matter is reduced by at least 25%. We will strengthen the protection of drinking water sources and joint pollution control efforts around rivers, lakes, and coastlines. We will set a red line for the protection of ecosystems, implement management by region, and establish ecological corridors around the Yongding River and elsewhere. We will redouble afforestry efforts in the Beijing-Tianjin-Baoding region and wetlands restoration efforts around lakes such as Baiyangdian and Hengshui, and ensure joint efforts are made to develop the Bashang Plateau Ecological Protection Zone and the Yanshan-Taihangshan Ecological Conservation Zone.
The Common Development and Sharing of Public Services
We will establish a regional information sharing and service platform for human resources and better coordinate policies on inter-regional labor, employment, and skilled personnel. We will improve the distribution of education resources, encourage institutions of higher learning to jointly develop disciplines and share resources, and promote the coordinated development of vocational education. We will establish sound regional systems for referring patients, in both directions, between major hospitals and community health service facilities and for promoting universal recognition of medical examination results, and support the participation of nongovernmental capital in the operation of public hospitals. We will ensure that documents related to the old age insurance scheme are mutually recognized throughout Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province, and we will promote the coordinated development of social insurance.
Chapter 39 Develop the Yangtze Economic Belt
In continuing to give strategic priority to the ecology as well as green development, we will give primary emphasis to the restoration of ecosystems and the environment around the Yangtze River, promote coordinated development along its upper, middle, and lower reaches as well as interaction and cooperation between the Yangtze River areas in the eastern, central, and western regions, and build these areas into a region that is a national leader in ecological progress, is driven by innovation, and enjoys coordinated development.
The Yangtze River Ecological Corridor
We will promote the protection of water resources and the control of water pollution within the entire Yangtze watershed, and ensure that the main river channel of the Yangtze maintains a water quality rating of Grade III or better. We will ensure that basically all urban household wastewater and refuse along the main channels and tributaries of the Yangtze are collected and treated. We will properly handle the relations between rivers and lakes, improve their flow management and storage capabilities, and strengthen the protection of their ecosystems. We will conduct overall
planning for the industrial layout along the Yangtze as well as ports, crossings, and water intakes and outlets along its shorelines. We will ensure unified scheduling of reservoir clusters in the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze. We will strengthen the treatment of phosphate pollution and phosphorus chemical industry pollution in the Yangtze valley. We will implement major ecological restoration projects such as the Yangtze River forest shelterbelt, and improve water source and soil conservation. We will strengthen prevention and control of geological disasters in the Yangtze River valley. We will step up efforts to protect and restore key ecological areas in this valley. We will establish a Yangtze River wetlands conservation fund. We will create new trans- regional ecological protection mechanisms as well as new joint environmental governance mechanisms, and put in place mechanisms for promoting and providing compensation for ecological conservation. We will develop the Three Gorges eco- economy cooperation zone.
A Robust, Multidimensional Transport Corridor
Taking advantage of the Yangtze River golden watercourse, we will ensure the coordinated development of multiple transport methods. We will build a 12.5-meter- deep water shipping channel from Nanjing on downstream, renovate the shipping channel from Yichang to Anqing, and promote new channel development for the Three Gorges water transport hub in order to improve the Three Gorges comprehensive transport system. We will improve the distribution of ports, accelerate the development of the Wuhan and Chongqing shipping centers in the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze as well as the regional shipping and logistics center in Nanjing, strengthen the development of collection, distribution, and transportation systems, develop combined river-ocean shipping and water-rail shipping, and develop a combined river-ocean shipping service center at Zhoushan. We will promote the standardization of ships that operate on the Yangtze and improve intelligent security safeguard systems. We will accelerate the development of high-speed railways and high-grade highways. We will strengthen the role played by aviation hubs and improve the distribution of regional airports. We will build main oil and gas pipelines along the Yangtze and improve pipeline connectivity.
Distribution of Urban Areas and Industries along the Yangtze River
We will work to bring about a networked and clustered geospatial layout driven by principal cities, and supported by small and medium cities, by improving the roles of the Yangtze River Delta, the middle reaches of the Yangtze, and the Chengdu- Chongqing region, ensuring Shanghai plays a leading role as an international financial, trading, shipping, and economic center, and seeing that Chongqing plays an important role as a strategic pivot and connection point in the region. Taking into consideration resource and environmental carrying capacities, we will guide industries in relocating in an orderly way to form an appropriate layout, create competitive industrial clusters that take advantage of local strengths, cultivate and build up emerging strategic industries, and develop concentrated, competitive, eco-friendly, and low-carbon modern industrial corridors. We will accelerate the development of the golden international tourism belt. We will develop agricultural regions that capitalize on local strengths.
Chapter 40 Support the Development of Special Regions
We will increase support or old revolutionary areas, are as with concentrations of ethnic minorities, border areas, and poor areas, implement the talent support plan for border areas, remote areas, poor areas, areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities close to the border, and old revolutionary areas, and work to quicken the pace of economic development in these areas to considerably raise the living standards of the people.
Old Revolutionary Areas
We will improve policy support for revitalizing and developing old revolutionary areas, channeling great effort into the revitalization and development of former key revolutionary areas which are now in poverty such as the former Soviet
areas of the CPC Central Committee in Jiangxi, Fujian, and Guangdong, the Shaanxi- Gansu-Ningxia Border Region, the Dabie Mountains region, the Zuo and You rivers region, and the Sichuan- Shaanxi region as well as providing support for stepping up development in underdeveloped former revolutionary areas, such as the Yimeng Mountains region, the Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Border Region, the Taihang Mountains region, and the Haifeng and Lufeng regions. We will accelerate the construction of infrastructure such as transport, water, energy, and telecommunications, ensure significant improvements in the level of basic public services, and work harder to improve and protect the ecology. We will foster agriculture, forestry, and other industries that take advantage of local strengths and can greatly help increase incomes, develop tourism related to the early history of the CPC, and actively and systematically promote the development of energy and resources. We will accelerate the transfer of the workforce in old revolutionary areas to nonagricultural jobs.
Areas with Concentrations of Ethnic Minorities
We will attach greater strategic importance to accelerating the development of ethnic minorities and the areas where they reside, ensuring that such areas see an increase in government investment and financial support, an improvement in infrastructure, and a strengthening of basic public service capabilities. We will support these areas in developing distinctive regional economies as well as industries that take advantage of local strengths. We will strengthen support and assistance across provinces and regions through pairing programs. We will increase support for Tibet and the Tibetan ethnic areas in the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, and Qinghai. We will support the accelerated development of Hotan Prefecture, Aksu Prefecture, Kashi Prefecture, and Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in southern Xinjiang. We will promote the development of ethnic minority undertakings, support the development of ethnic minorities with smaller populations and the production of special products needed by ethnic minorities, and help protect and pass on the traditions and culture of ethnic minorities. We will expand efforts to create ethnic unity and progress demonstration areas and promote communication, exchange, and blending between ethnic groups.
Section 3 Border Areas
We will develop cities and key development and opening up experimental zones in border areas. We will strengthen infrastructure connectivity and accelerate the development of key international thoroughfares. We will ensure that Xinjiang becomes an important window for opening up westward, that Tibet becomes a major channel for opening up into South Asia, that Yunnan becomes a center of outward development toward South and Southeast Asia, and that Guangxi becomes an international thoroughfare for ASEAN. We will support Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, and Inner Mongolia in becoming important windows for opening up northward and central hubs for cooperation with Northeast Asia. We will accelerate the development of leading zones in the Changchun-Jilin-Tumenjiang region for development and opening up toward Northeast Asia. We will channel great efforts into border area initiatives to promote development and improve people’s lives, and we will also increase the level of support for people in border areas.
Section 4 Poor Areas
We will increase policy support for the development of alternative industries in areas affected by mineral resource depletion, industrial decline, severe ecological degradation, or other difficulties, and promote transformation and innovation in resource-dependent areas in order to help them develop multiple sources of support, build up a variety of industries, and achieve diversified development. We will promote the upgrading and transformation of all old industrial bases, independent industrial and mining areas, and areas affected by mining-induced subsidence. We will support the accelerated transformation of old industrial cities affected by industrial decline and improve mechanisms for eliminating overcapacity in regions with a concentration of over-capacitated industries. We will redouble efforts to restore and improve areas devastated by ecological degradation and relocate people for ecological reasons in an orderly way. We will accelerate the reform of state forestry farms and forest regions, and basically accomplish the tasks of relocating forestry workers from deep in the mountains
or remote mountainous regions within state forest regions as well as abolishing or merging state forestry farms.
Special Region Development Projects
1. Revitalize old revolutionary areas
§ Plan and carry out a number of infrastructure projects such as railways, expressways, regional airports, water control projects, and energy and information infrastructure;
§ Implement eco-projects such as natural forest protection, overall management of rocky desertification, and the turning of marginal farmland for conversion into forests and grasslands;
§ Support the development of clean energy such as wind power and hydropower;
§ Develop high-quality tourist routes to sites related to the early history of the CPC.
2. Achieve moderate prosperity in areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities
§ Promote targeted poverty alleviation by ethnic group and by village for ethnic groups with smaller populations;
§ Adopt local or near-local poverty alleviation measures for towns and townships on the border where residents guard land borders and it is inappropriate to relocate them through development programs;
§ Implement projects to protect and develop the distinctive villages and towns of ethnic minorities and focus on developing distinctive and traditional ethnic minority villages and towns;
§ Support the protection and development of the traditional handicrafts of ethnic minorities.
3. Develop and open up border areas
§ Implement projects to transform and upgrade transport infrastructure in border areas;
§ Carry out projects to revitalize border areas through industrial development and develop cross-border tourism cooperation areas and border tourism experimental areas;
§ Implement projects to improve the standards of living for the residents of border areas, putting in place dynamic subsidy mechanisms.
4. Transform resource-depleted areas
§ Support resource-depleted cities in focusing on developing alternative industries to provide reemployment opportunities for miners as well as for residents returning after the completion of housing-rebuilding projects in urban rundown areas;
§ Make greater efforts to transform and relocate independent industrial and mining areas;
§ Support the transformation and upgrading of infrastructure, public service facilities, and alternative industrial platforms in mining areas;
§ Implement relocation projects in a portion of remote, resource-depleted, or uninhabitable independent industrial and mining areas;
§ Basically complete transformation and relocation projects in about 100 such areas.
5. Revitalize areas of industrial decline
§ Develop demonstration zones and demonstration industrial parks for manufacturing transformation and upgrading in old industrial cities where conditions permit;
§ Implement relocation and transformation projects in all old urban industrial areas;
§ Carry out overall planning for relocating and transforming enterprises as well as fostering emerging industries;
§ Support efforts to treat industry-polluted land and industrial wasteland;
§ Step up efforts to protect and utilize China’s industrial heritage;
§ Basically complete relocation and transformation projects in more than 100 old urban industrial areas.
6. Transform areas devastated by ecological degradation
§ Accelerate efforts to solve longstanding problems related to the improvement of the geological environments of key mines;
§ Complete geological environment restoration for 500,000 hectares of land in mining areas that have been historically problematic;
§ Support comprehensive improvement efforts in key areas affected by land subsidence due to coal mining;
§ Conduct the orderly resettlement of residents in such areas for safety reasons;
§ Move ahead with land reclamation, environmental improvement, and ecological restoration;
§ Complete the comprehensive improvement of 300,000 hectares of coal mining areas affected by land subsidence.
Chapter 41 Widen Space for the Blue Economy
We will pursue coordinated land and marine development, develop the marine economy, effectively develop marine resources, protect marine ecosystems and habitats, and safeguard China’s maritime rights and interests, building China into a strong maritime country.
Strengthening the Marine Economy
We will improve the marine industry structure, develop high seas fishing, promote the scaled-up use of desalinated sea water, support the development of industries such as marine biological medicine and marine equipment manufacturing, and accelerate the development of marine service industries. We will develop marine science and technology, focusing on achieving breakthroughs in advanced marine technology which allows deep- sea operations and is eco-friendly and secure. We will move ahead with development of smart marine projects. We will make innovations in market- based allocation methods for ocean and island resources. We will develop national marine economic development experimental zones in Shandong, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Fujian, and Tianjin, support Hainan in using South China Sea resources to develop a distinctive marine economy, and develop Qingdao’s Blue Silicon Valley as well as other marine economic development demonstration zones.
Strengthening Protection of Marine Resources and Environments
We will deepen comprehensive management of marine ecosystems, promote the development of marine functional areas, improve the spatial layout of offshore areas, and ensure that development intensity is appropriate. We will strictly control the scale of land reclamation from the sea, strengthen the protection and restoration of coastal zones, and ensure that the natural shoreline does not fall below 35%. We will also strictly control the intensity of fishing and enforce a fishing prohibition period. We will strengthen the prospecting and development of marine resources and expand scientific expeditions to marine polar regions. We will ensure that pollutants originating from land can be discharged into the sea only if they meet standards, control the total amount of pollutants discharged, and establish an early warning mechanism for the carrying capacity of marine resources and its environment. We will enforce marine ecological red lines, implement a project to restore wetlands by developing mangrove forests in the south and Chinese tamarisk forests in the north, carry out projects to develop islands and reefs in an ecologically sustainable way, and strengthen the protection of rare marine species. We will strengthen research on marine climate change, increase marine
disaster monitoring, risk evaluation, and disaster prevention and mitigation capabilities, strengthen strategic preparedness for conducting maritime disaster relief, and improve response capabilities in regards to environmental emergencies occurring at sea. We will put in place a maritime supervision system and conventionalize maritime supervision.
Safeguarding Maritime Rights and Interests
We will effectively safeguard China’s territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests. We will strengthen the capabilities of maritime law enforcement organizations, deepen historical and legal research on maritime issues, coordinate the use of different measures to safeguard and expand China’s maritime rights and interests, see that maritime torts are properly handled, and ensure navigational freedom and maritime safety within waters under China’s jurisdiction. We will take an active part in the establishment and protection of the international and regional maritime order, improve dialogue and cooperation mechanisms with neighboring countries regarding maritime issues, and promote pragmatic maritime cooperation. We will further improve mechanisms for coordinating marine affairs, strengthen the top-level design of maritime strategies, and formulate a basic maritime law.
ECOSYSTEMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
To improve the quality of the environment and resolve serious ecological and environmental problems, we will step up ecosystem and environmental protection efforts, ensure that resources are used more efficiently and that more quality ecological goods are available to the public, and simultaneously help the people become prosperous, help the country grow stronger, and build a Beautiful China.
Chapter 42 Accelerate the Development of Functional Zones
We will work to see that functional zoning plays a stronger role as a fundamental system for the development and protection of China’s territorial space, speed up efforts to improve policies on functional zones, and ensure all regions develop in accordance with their functions.
Basic Completion of Functional Zoning
To use nature in a restrained and orderly way, we will adjust and improve the spatial structure, working toward: strategic urbanization based on the two east-west and three north-south economic belts;2 strategic agricultural development based on the 23 agricultural production belts within the seven agricultural production zones;3 strategic ecological security based on the two ecological shields and three ecological belts;4 sustainable development of maritime space.
We will ensure an appropriate intensity of development of China’s territorial space and increase ecological space. We will work to move leading development regions toward the higher end of production and greater efficiency, improve the structure of spatial development, cut annually the amount of land designated for construction purposes, and bring about more efficient land use. We will encourage key development regions to increase industrial clustering and population density, and foster a number of growth poles that stimulate coordinated development between regions. We will set red lines for the protection of agricultural and ecological space, expand key ecosystem service zones, and strengthen protection of no-development regions.
2 The New Eurasian Continental Bridge and Yangtze River east-west economic belts and the east coast, Harbin-Beijing-Guangzhou, and Baotou-Kunming north-south economic belts.
3 The northeast plains, the Yellow-Huai-Hai river plain, the Yangtze River basin, the Fen-
Wei river plain, the Hetao irrigation area, southern China, and the Gansu-Xinjiang region.
4 The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Loess Plateau-Sichuan-Yunnan ecological shields, and
the northeast China forest belt, the northern China desertification-prevention belt, and the southern China mountainous belt.
Policies on Functional Zones
Based on the requirements for each functional zone, we will improve differentiated policies related to finance, industry, investment, population flow, land, resource development, and environmental protection while also implementing differentiated performance evaluation methods. We will put into effect industry negative lists in key ecosystem service areas. We will increase transfer payments to major agricultural production areas and key ecosystem service areas, and establish sound mechanisms for trans-regional and intra-watershed compensation for ecological conservation efforts. We will set up national ecological conservation pilot zones that are unified and well-regulated. We will establish a national park system and form national parks through the integration of existing areas.
Spatial Governance Systems
We will establish, on the municipal and county scale, spatial governance systems that consist of spatial planning, territorial space regulation, and differentiated performance evaluations. We will establish a national spatial planning system to coordinate all spatial plans on the basis of functional zoning, and we will encourage local governments to integrate their urban plans into a single master plan. We will improve the territorial space development permit system. We will establish monitoring and early- warning mechanisms for environmental and resource carrying capacity and take restrictive measures in regions which have reached or are approaching the warning lines. We will survey, evaluate, and monitor land, minerals, and other resources. We will increase surveying, mapping, and geoinformation service capabilities, carry out regular geographical monitoring, and promote the development of global geoinformation resources.
Chapter 43 Promote Economical and Intensive Resource Use
We will stay aware of the need for the economical, efficient, and circular use of resources, bring about a fundamental change in the way resources are utilized, and strengthen conservation management throughout the entire process of resource use, thus significantly raising resource utilization efficiency.
Section 1 Energy Conservation
We will move ahead with the revolution in energy consumption. We will promote society-wide energy conservation, make comprehensive efforts to promote energy conservation in industry, construction, transportation, public institutions, and other areas, and launch projects to upgrade boilers, furnaces, lighting products, and electric motors and recover waste heat for household heating. We will develop and spur the adoption of energy- conserving technologies and products and demonstrate the application of major energy-conserving technologies. We will launch the “100, 1,000, 10,000” energy conservation initiative to put the top 100 energy consuming enterprises in China under national regulation, the top 1,000 energy consuming enterprises under the regulation of their respective provincial- level governments, and other high energy consuming enterprises under the regulation of lower-level governments; encourage enterprises to take voluntary measures to reduce energy consumption; facilitate the development of energy management systems, energy measurement systems, and online energy consumption monitoring systems; and carry out energy reviews and efficiency evaluations. We will work to raise building energy efficiency and initiate eco- friendliness across the entire construction chain. We will promote energy-conserving, low-carbon electric power dispatching. We will move forward with comprehensive cascade utilization of energy. We will ensure China’s total energy consumption stays below five billion metric tons of standard coal.
Toward a Water-Conserving Society
We will put into effect the strictest possible water resources management system and get everyone to conserve water. We will plan industrial production and urban development based on water resources and impose stricter control over industrial development and water quotas in regions affected by water scarcity. We will move more quickly toward water conservancy in agriculture, industry, and cities, make steady progress in the comprehensive price reform of water for agricultural purposes, and carry out demonstrations of comprehensive improvements in water-saving equipment and technologies. We will tighten oversight over major water consumers, and encourage the reuse of water as well as the differentiated use of water according to its quality. We will establish a water efficiency labeling system and promote the adoption of water-saving technologies and products. We will accelerate the utilization of alternative water resources and implement projects to make better use of rainwater, floodwater, and reclaimed water. We will ensure that China’s total water usage stays below 670 billion cubic meters.
Economical and Intensive Land Use
We will strictly control the amount of additional land designated for construction projects and bring under effective control the disorderly expansion of new cities, new districts, and development areas. We will redevelop urban land that is being used inefficiently, develop and utilize hilly slope land, promote the multipurpose development of land designated for construction and its aboveground and belowground vertical overall development, and facilitate the reutilization of idle resources such as vacant buildings and factories. We will strictly control the amount of rural land designated for collective construction projects, explore the establishment of a rural land purchase and reserve system, and put idle rural land designated for construction to better use. We will carry out inspections and evaluations concerning the economical and intensive use of land designated for construction. We will work to lower the area of land used for construction per unit of GDP by 20%.
Mineral Resource Conservation and Management
We will tighten planning and management of mineral resources; put in place strict systems which ensure their regional management, control total exploitation, and require mining authorization; and we will better coordinate multiple mining activities. We will support technological and process upgrading in mining enterprises, guide the merging and reorganization of small mines, and shut down mining activities that use outdated techniques or are environmentally undesirable. We will promote the development of demonstration zones for green mining and the green mining industry, launch demonstration projects for the economical and multipurpose utilization of mineral resources as well as projects to preserve and build reserves of mineral resources, and work to increase the rates of exploitation of mineral resources, ore dressing recovery rates, and multipurpose utilization rates of mineral resources. We will improve mechanisms to keep the prices of superior minerals stable through limiting production. We will establish a national royalty system for mineral resources and improve mineral resource tax and fee systems. We will carry out the mineral exploration initiative.
The Circular Economy
We will implement a plan for guiding circular development, encourage the circular use of resources between production and society, and accelerate efforts to recycle resources from refuse. We will make coordinated plans for industrial layouts based on material flow and industrial linkage, encourage industrial parks to adopt a more circular operational flow, establish hybrid industry-agriculture circular economy demonstration zones, and promote the coupled growth of enterprises, industrial parks, and industries. We will facilitate the recovery and utilization of mineral resources from urban waste, ensure that resources from industrial solid waste and other types of mass refuse are recycled and reused, accelerate the establishment of systems for the recycling or safe disposal of urban kitchen waste, construction refuse, and textile waste, and develop remanufacturing in line with standards. We will put into effect an extended producer responsibility system. We will improve recycling networks for renewable
resources and strengthen coordination between the recycling of sorted household waste and the recycling of renewable resources.
Section 6 Frugal Lifestyles
We will advocate reasonable consumption while opposing waste and extravagance. We will work to see that economy is practiced throughout all stages— from production to distribution, storage, and consumption. We will exercise effective control over the abuse of public funds, take action against over-packaging, food waste, and overconsumption, and work to see that frugality becomes a social norm. We will promote green transport services such as bicycling and public transport. We will restrict the use of single-use disposable products.
Mechanisms for Efficient Use of Resources
We will impose binding limits on the total consumption and the intensity of consumption of energy and water resources as well as on the amount of land designated for construction purposes. To this end, we will strengthen responsibility for meeting targets, ensure that the market plays a better role, and improve standards, performance assessments, and oversight. We will establish a sound initial allocation system for the right to use energy, the right to use water, and the right to emit carbon, develop markets for the trading of these rights, and create new mechanisms in this area for compensated use, budgetary management, investment, and financing. We will improve standards for conserving energy, water, land, materials, and minerals, raise building energy efficiency standards, and ensure that energy conservation standards cover all key industries and equipment. We will strengthen energy conservation evaluation and inspection. We will establish sound mechanisms through which the central government can assess and reward the energy conservation and environmental protection efforts of local governments, and broaden the scope of comprehensive demonstrations of financial policies designed to promote energy conservation and emissions reduction. We will
establish a unified and standardized platform for the sale of state-owned natural resource assets. We will organize initiatives to see that pioneering efforts in energy and water efficiency lead conservation efforts.
Economical, Intensive, and Circular Resource Use Initiatives
1. Society-wide energy conservation efforts
§ Encourage the use of energy-efficient products and services in enterprises and households;
§ Implement a plan for catching up with and exceeding international energy efficiency standards with a focus on six major energy-intensive industries – the electric power, iron and steel, building materials, chemical, petroleum and petrochemical, and nonferrous metals industries;
§ Support the demonstration of comprehensive energy efficiency improvement efforts by 500 major energy consumers;
§ Organize the implementation of projects, such as those to improve energy systems, upgrade the energy-efficient electric motor system, demonstrate the industrial application of energy-saving technologies, reduce coal consumption and replace it with alternative energy sources, and promote eco-lighting.
2. Society-wide water conservation efforts
§ Demonstrate the building of a water-conserving society;
§ Adopt a district metering area (DMA) approach and upgrade water pipes to reduce leakage in 100 cities;
§ Encourage the use of recycled water and advanced wastewater treatment and recycling;
§ Promote the upgrading of water-saving equipment in industrial parks and in five major water-consuming industries – the thermal power, textile, papermaking, petrochemical, and chemical industries;
§ Implement 100 demonstrations and trials for water-conservation performance-based contracting;
§ Promote the use of water-saving appliances and encourage households to replace appliances that do not meet water-saving standards;
§ Launch demonstration projects for the desalinization of seawater to meet the demand for water on islands;
§ Strengthen monitoring over the use of water by major water consumers.
3. Economical and intensive use of land designated for construction purposes
§ Improve inspection and evaluation techniques concerning the economical and intensive use of land designated for construction purposes;
§ Establish a national database of such evaluations for land designated for construction purposes in cities, development zones, institutions of higher learning, towns, and villages;
§ Promote the application of land-saving techniques and modes of development.
Chapter 44 Step Up Comprehensive Environmental Governance
We will think and work more creatively when it comes to environmental governance, implement the strictest possible environmental protection system, strengthen the responsibility of polluters, and create a system of environmental co- governance involving the government, enterprises, and the general public, so as to bring about an overall improvement in the quality of the environment.
Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan
We will formulate a plan for ensuring air quality standards in cities are met, strictly enforce obligatory targets, see that cities at and above the prefectural level achieve a 25% reduction in the number of days of heavy air pollution, and channel greater effort into reducing fine particulate matter emissions in key regions. We will establish a monitoring system to ensure that environmental protection standards for vehicles, watercraft, and fuel oil are achieved. We will work to increase the proportion of natural gas users in cities. We will strengthen monitoring of windblown dust from
unpaved roads and construction sites and prohibit open straw burning. We will comprehensively strengthen environmental governance efforts in key river basins and sea areas, ensure strict protection of healthy water bodies and sources of drinking water, and strengthen comprehensive governance of and efforts to improve bodies of water that are of a relatively poor quality. We will regulate water functional areas by zone type, working to ensure that over 80% of the major rivers and lakes designated as water functional areas meet water quality standards. We will carry out groundwater pollution surveys and put in place comprehensive prevention and treatment measures. We will prevent and treat soil contamination according to pollution type and grade, give high priority to protecting the quality of soil environments on agricultural lands, and strengthen monitoring and regulation over the soil environments on land designated for construction purposes.
Emissions Standards Compliance and Aggregate Emissions Reduction
We will ensure that all industrial polluters meet emissions standards. We will improve emissions standards, strengthen supervisory monitoring of industrial pollution sources, publish a blacklist of enterprises that fail to meet emissions standards, and require such enterprises to make corrections within a stipulated time frame. All heavily polluting enterprises located within urban districts will be either relocated, upgraded, or, in accordance with the law, shut down. We will conduct the second national survey of pollution sources. We will reform the total emissions control system for major pollutants so that more pollutants are covered. We will control total emissions of volatile organic compounds in chief regions and industries to bring about a nationwide drop in total emissions of over 10%. We will promote the use of alternative clean energy in urban “villages” and urban- rural fringes, and replace small and medium coal-fired facilities. Aggregate emissions of total nitrogen will be controlled in all cities at and above prefectural level that are situated along the coastline or along rivers that flow into eutrophicated lakes. Chief industries will be transformed to achieve clean production.
Environmental Risk Prevention and Control
We will ensure integrated environmental risk management. We will strengthen the prevention and treatment of pollution caused by hazardous waste and conduct an initiative to deal with hazardous waste. We will step up the prevention and treatment of heavy metal pollution in chief regions and chief industries such as the nonferrous metal industry. We will increase assessment capabilities regarding the environmental and health risks posed by toxic and hazardous chemical substances. We will improve nuclear safety, strengthen the prevention and control of radioactive pollution, and improve monitoring systems and capabilities with respect to nuclear and radiation safety.
Environmental Infrastructure Development
We will accelerate the development of urban refuse treatment facilities, improve refuse collection and transportation systems, increase the waste incineration rate, and ensure proper treatment of landfill leachate. We will accelerate the construction and upgrading of urban sewage treatment facilities and sewer networks, promote the recycling and safe disposal of sludge, and ensure that household wastewater and refuse treatment facilities cover all urban areas, operate reliably, and are in line with standards; and we will raise the percentage of sewage receiving centralized treatment to 95% in cities and 85% in county towns. We will establish a national unified real-time online environmental monitoring system and promote the development of big data for environmental protection.
Reform of Fundamental Environmental Governance Systems
We will ensure that local governments fulfill their environmental responsibilities, make environmental protection inspection visits, and establish a responsibility system and performance assessment mechanisms for meeting environmental protection targets. We will put into effect a system that places the monitoring, supervision, and law
enforcement activities of environmental bodies below the provincial level under the supervision of environmental protection bodies at the next level up, explore the establishment of trans-regional environmental protection bodies, and encourage coordinated pollution prevention and control efforts in entire river basins and between regions as well as coordinated urban- rural environmental governance. We will institute integrated control and unified monitoring of multiple pollutants, establish a business emissions permit system that covers all fixed pollution sources, and put the regulation of the discharge of all pollutants under an emissions permit. We will establish sound systems for the compensated use and trading of emissions rights. We will ensure the strict and trans-regional joint enforcement of environmental protection legislation, and strengthen oversight over law enforcement and investigations into accountability. We will compile a record of the environmental credibility of enterprises and a blacklist of those that illegally emit pollutants, require greater self-monitoring by enterprises over their emissions of pollutants and strengthen the public disclosure of environmental information, improve the channels for public participation in pollution control efforts, and improve the environmental public-interest litigation system. We will conduct auditing over the performance of outgoing officials in fulfilling their environmental protection responsibilities.
Environmental Governance and Protection Initiatives
1. Emissions standards compliance for all sources of industrial pollution
§ Transform enterprises in the steel, cement, plate glass, papermaking, printing and dyeing, nitrogenous fertilizer, and sugar refining industries that cannot consistently meet emissions standards;
§ Put a stop to all projects that cause heavy pollution in violation of state industrial policies;
§ Ensure the upgrading of the sewage treatment facilities of industrial parks within a specified time frame;
§ Work to basically eliminate coal-fired steam boilers with a capacity of ten tons or lower in all cities at or above the prefectural level across the country;
§ Ensure that boilers with a capacity of 35 tons or greater are equipped with desulfurization, denitration, and dust purification technologies, that steel industry sintering machines are equipped with desulfurization technology, and that the cement industry adopts denitration technology;
§ Put an end to production methods of PVC that use a high mercury catalyst for acetylene.
2. Atmospheric environmental governance
§ Control the aggregate coal consumption of all regions, with the focus on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and adjacent areas, the Yangtze River delta, the Pearl River delta, and northeast China;
§ Promote the use of natural gas in place of coal in major cities, increasing natural gas consumption by 45 billion cubic meters and eliminating 189,000 tons of coal- fired boiler capacity;
§ Work to reduce volatile organic compound emissions by petrochemical and chemical enterprises and refueling stations;
§ Step up the removal of old or high-emissions vehicles from the roads;
§ Implement national-VI emission standards and corresponding national fuel product standards;
§ Ensure vapor recovery and treatment is carried out for oil tank trucks and oil depots.
3. Water environmental governance
§ Ensure the strict protection of river sources and 378 rivers, lakes, and reservoirs with a water quality rating of Grade III or better;
§ Implement improvement projects for sewage outfalls into major rivers, lakes, and reservoirs;
§ Ensure water quality standards are met at major sources of drinking water;
§ Comprehensively treat water pollution in lakes, such as Tai, Dongting, Dianchi, Chao, Poyang, Baiyangdian, Ulansuhai, Hulun, and Ebi, as well as endogenous pollution on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze and in the Pearl River delta;
§ Promote comprehensive environmental governance efforts within the river basins of the Yangtze, Yellow, Peal, Songhua, Huai, Hai, and Liao rivers;
§ Ensure that basically every body of water meets at least the Grade V water standards;
§ Intensify efforts to improve black, malodorous bodies of water, and ensure that such bodies of water make up no more than 10% of the total in the urban districts of cities at or above the prefectural level;
§ Carry out groundwater restoration trials in areas such as Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, and Shanxi;
§ Ensure the treatment of pollution in major estuaries and bays.
4. Soil environmental governance
§ Conduct soil contamination surveys using a greater sampling density;
§ Conduct soil pollution treatment trials on 100 plots of agricultural land and 100 plots of land for construction purposes;
§ Establish six demonstration zones for the prevention and treatment of soil contamination;
§ Ensure that soil pollution treatment efforts on lands formerly occupied by chemical enterprises which had been relocated for safety or environmental reasons are conducted smoothly;
§ Conduct treatment and restoration efforts on 666,667 hectares of contaminated cultivated land as well as risk control on 2.67 million hectares of contaminated cultivated land;
§ Comprehensively deal with heavy metal contaminated areas, with the focus on the Xiang River basin.
Chapter 45 Intensify Ecological Conservation and Restoration
Affording high priority to environmental protection and letting nature restore itself, we will ensure the protection and restoration of ecosystems, build ecosystem service corridors and biodiversity protection networks, and work to make natural ecosystems more stable and better able to provide services, thereby building robust ecological security barriers.
Improving Ecosystem Functions
We will make major afforestation efforts, strengthen key forestry projects, improve the virgin forest protection system, and put a stop to commercial logging in all virgin forests, so as to protect and foster forest ecosystems. We will ensure that state forests and forestry farms lead the country’s afforestation efforts, and will create new
property rights models to encourage nongovernmental investment in afforestation. We will prohibit the transplantation of large naturally grown trees into cities. We will turn more marginal farmland into forest or grassland, protect and improve grassland ecosystems, prohibit grazing in some areas while putting in place grazing suspension periods or rotational grazing systems in others, return some grazing lands back to natural grassland, better treat and control grassland degradation, desertification, and salinization, and ensure that the grassland vegetation coverage reaches 56%. We will protect and restore desert ecosystems, speed up efforts to improve the environmental governance of areas at the source of dust storms, and contain the expansion of desertification. We will work to maintain the groundwater levels of major rivers, lakes, wetlands, and estuaries, protect and restore wetland, lake, and river ecosystems, and establish a wetland protection system.
Ecological Restoration in Key Regions
We will comprehensively treat desertification, rock desertification, and soil erosion in accordance with the principles of source protection, ecosystem restoration, and integrated action. We will continue implementing the second phase of the project to deal with the sources of dust storms affecting Beijing and Tianjin. We will strengthen the protection of the ecosystems at river sources and water source conservation areas for the Yangtze, Yellow, and Lancang rivers, along with others. We will strengthen protection of the ecosystems of the Three Gorges Reservoir region, the water sources of the South- to-North Water Diversion Project as well as of the ecological corridors along the project, and others. We will develop the eco-economic belt along the Yellow River. We will support the development of the Gansu ecological security demonstration zone. We will carry out demonstrations of the recovery and restoration of typically damaged ecosystems. We will improve the national groundwater monitoring system and make comprehensive efforts to address over-extraction of groundwater. We will establish a system for closing off desertified land for protection. We will take gradual steps to relocate people from the core areas and buffer zones of nature reserves.
The Provision of Ecological Goods
We will work to provide more diversified ecological goods, improve the spatial distribution of ecological services, and become better able to provide public ecological services. We will strengthen protection of scenic areas, forest parks, wetland parks, and desert parks, improve roads and other infrastructure in forest areas, and promote the appropriately scaled development of goods and services for leisure activities, tourism, and health activities. We will accelerate the development of urban-rural ecological infrastructure such as greenways and country parks, and promote the development of forest towns and cities. We will launch high-quality eco- tourism routes and open up more ecological spaces.
Section 4 Biodiversity Protection
We will implement biodiversity protection projects. We will strengthen the development and management of nature reserves and step up the protection of typical ecosystems, species, genes, and landscape diversity. We will conduct biodiversity background surveys and evaluations and improve biodiversity observation systems. We will ensure the proper planning and development of facilities and parks for the biological resources protection and promote the development of gene banks and artificial breeding centers for wild fauna and flora species. We will take strict measures to prevent and control exotic species invasion, and we will guard against the loss of genetic resources. We will strengthen regulation over the import and export of wild fauna and flora and crack down on the illegal trading of ivory and other wildlife products.
the Inner Mongolian Plateau, the Hexi Corridor, the Tarim River basin, and the karst areas in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guizhou.
2. Afforestation efforts
§ Implement large-scale tree planting projects;
§ Carry out the afforestation of contiguous areas;
§ Strengthen the development of shelterbelt networks in northwest, north, and northeast China, coastal areas, and the Yangtze and Pearl river basins;
§ Accelerate the development of national reserve forest and timber forest centers;
§ Promote the restoration of degraded shelterbelts;
§ Build large green ecological protection spaces as well as green corridors to connect ecological spaces, thereby forming networks of trees and forests throughout the country.
3. Comprehensive land consolidation
§ Launch comprehensive environmental improvement efforts in key river basins, on islands, and along coastlines;
§ Strengthen geological environmental governance and ecological restoration in regions of intensive mineral resource mining;
§ Promote the reclamation of damaged land and deserted industrial and mining land;
§ Carry out the restoration of deserted mining land as well as mountains and hills damaged by natural disasters or large construction projects;
§ Undertake comprehensive environmental improvement along the Beijing- Hangzhou Grand Canal as well as along older Yellow River waterways dating back to the Ming and Qing dynasties;
§ Promote comprehensive land development, protection, and improvement in border areas.
4. Virgin forest protection
§ Protect virgin forests;
§ Bring areas planted with immature forests, sparse forests, and shrubbery forests that can be cultivated into virgin forests under the same protection as virgin forests;
§ Restore forest vegetation through afforestation projects in forest areas that are unable to restore themselves.
5. A new round of efforts to turn marginal farmland and grazing land into forest or grassland
§ Turn farmland that occupies slopes of 25 degrees or steeper, is affected by serious desertification, or occupies slopes of 15 to 25 degrees in areas of key water sources into forest or grassland;
§ Steadily return more grazing land to grassland;
§ Make sound plans for the construction of grassland fencing and the reseeding of degraded grasslands;
§ Help restore the ecology and biodiversity of natural grasslands;
§ Take steps to treat poisonous or harmful grasses, barren patches of grassland, and cultivated grassland in the margins between agricultural land and grazing land.
6. Prevention and control of sandstorms and integrated management of soil erosion
§ Take integrated steps to prevent and control soil erosion in the northern desertification-prevention belt, the Loess Plateau area, the chernozem soil region in the northeast, the karst areas in the southwest, and other regions where it presents a problem;
§ Intensify efforts to improve terraced farmland, treat gully erosion, and ensure that small watersheds are ecologically clean;
§ Treat soil erosion on an additional 270,000 square kilometers of land.
7. Protection and restoration of wetlands
§ Strengthen protection of natural wetlands on the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze, along the Yellow River, and in the Caohai Lake area in Guizhou;
§ Take integrated steps to improve the environment of wetlands with degraded ecological functions and low levels of biodiversity;
§ Carry out demonstrations of sustainable wetland utilization;
§ Work to ensure that the total area of wetlands stays above 53.33 million hectares nationwide.
8. Rescue of endangered wild species of fauna and flora
§ Protect and improve the habitats of pandas, crested ibises, tigers, leopards, Asian elephants, and other rare and endangered animal species;
§ Establish rescue and breeding centers and gene banks;
§ Carry out wildlife rescue, rehabilitation, and release;
§ Strengthen efforts to rescue and restore the habitats of rare and endangered plants such as orchids as well as wild plant species with extremely small populations.
Chapter 46 Respond to Global Climate Change
While working hard to both adapt to and slow down climate change, we will take active steps to control carbon emissions, fulfill our commitments for emissions reduction, increase our capability to adapt to climate change, and fully participate in global climate governance, thus making a contribution to the response to global climate change.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control
We will bring carbon emissions in power, steel, building materials, chemical, and other major carbon-emitting industries under effective control, and promote low-carbon development in industry, energy, construction, transport, and other key sectors. We will support leading development regions in becoming the first to reach their carbon dioxide emissions peak. We will push forward pilot programs for low-carbon development and demonstrate the establishment of near-zero carbon emissions zones. We will control the emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases. We will promote the establishment of a national carbon emissions trading scheme, and implement systems for carbon emissions reporting, inspection, verification, and quota management for major carbon-emitters. We will improve statistical accounting, performance evaluation, and accountability systems as well as carbon emission standards. We will step up efforts to expand the use of low- carbon technologies and products.
Section 2 Adaptation to Climate Change
We will take climate change into full consideration in economic and social development efforts such as rural-urban development planning, infrastructure development, and productive force distribution. We will formulate and adjust technical standards in this regard at an appropriate time and put into effect an action plan for adapting to climate change. We will strengthen systemic observation and research on climate change, improve systems for forecasting and giving early warnings, and become better able to respond to extreme weather conditions and climatic events.
Section 3 International Cooperation
On the basis of equity and in accordance with the common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities of all countries, we will actively take on international obligations in line with our national context, stage of development, and
actual capabilities, and ensure that China makes a contribution toward producing a stronger response to climate change. We will take an active part in negotiations on global climate change and work toward a fair and equitable system of global climate governance based on mutually beneficial cooperation. We will help deepen bilateral and multilateral dialogue, exchange, and practical cooperation on climate change. We will ensure the South-South Cooperation Fund on Climate Change fully plays its role and support other developing countries in improving their capacity to deal with climate change.
Chapter 47 Improve Mechanisms for Ensuring Ecological Security
We will build up institutions for ecological progress, establish sound systems for ecological risk prevention and control, and improve capabilities to respond to ecological and environmental emergencies in order to keep China ecologically secure.
Ecological and Environmental Protection Systems
We will regulate the use of ecological spaces, define and strictly observe ecological redlines, and ensure that the functions of ecosystem service zones are not degraded, that their total area is not cut, and that they are not used for other purposes. We will establish a system for managing the total area of forests, grasslands, and wetlands. We will accelerate the establishment of diverse compensation mechanisms for ecological restoration and conservation efforts, and improve the mechanism linking fund allocation to ecological protection performance. We will establish an eco-tax system that covers certain areas including mining, resource consumption, pollutant discharge, and the import and export of resource products. We will research the establishment of an ecological value evaluation system, explore the creation of balance sheets for natural resources, and establish accounts for natural resource accounting in physical terms. We will audit outgoing officials’ management of natural resource assets. We will establish sound systems for assessing and affording compensation for ecological and
environmental damage and put into effect a lifelong accountability system for such damage.
Ecological and Environmental Risk Monitoring, Early-Warning, and Emergency Response
We will establish a sound national dynamic monitoring and early- warning system for ecological security and conduct regular comprehensive surveys and assessments of ecological risks. We will improve the coordination network for national, provincial, municipal, and county responses to ecological and environmental emergencies, and refine information reporting and release mechanisms for such emergencies. We will become stricter in relation to compensation for environmental damage and require industries that pose a high risk to the environment to carry liability insurance for environmental pollution.
Chapter 48 Develop Green and Environmentally Friendly Industries
We will support the development of green services providers, expand the use of energy efficient and environmentally friendly products, support innovations in technology, equipment, and service models, and improve related policies and mechanisms, so as to facilitate the development of energy efficient and environmentally friendly industries.
Environmentally Friendly Goods and Services
We will improve the environmental credentials management system for enterprises and encourage the development of professional services for energy
conservation and environmental protection in areas such as technical consultation, systems design, equipment manufacturing, project construction, and operations management. We will promote energy performance contracting, water-saving management contracting, and third party governance of environmental pollution. We will encourage nongovernmental investment in environmental protection infrastructure construction and carry out trials for putting the comprehensive environmental governance of small towns and industrial parks under trusteeship. We will promote the development of large energy conservation and environmental protection enterprises that are able to compete internationally, and encourage advanced, practical energy- conserving and environmental protection technologies and products to reach out to the world. We will advance systems for green labeling, green certification, and green government procurement in a coordinated way. We will establish a green finance system, develop green credit and bonds, and launch green development funds. We will improve grid policies for electricity generated from coal gangue, leftover heat and pressure, waste incineration, and methane. We will accelerate the formation of industrial systems for the green supply chain.
Environmental Protection Technology and Equipment
We will strengthen China’s capabilities with respect to energy-saving and environmentally friendly engineering, technology, and equipment manufacturing, and research, develop, demonstrate, and disseminate a number of advanced, environmentally friendly technologies and equipment. We will accelerate research and development on and the industrial application of new technologies and equipment, such as those for low- grade waste heat power generation, small gas turbines, fine particulate matter control, vehicle exhaust emissions purification, landfill leachate treatment, sludge recycling, coordinated multi-pollutant treatment, and soil remediation. We will promote the use of mature and applicable technologies, such as those for integrated high- efficiency flue gas dust removal and waste heat recovery, high-efficiency heat pumps, semi-conductor illumination, and waste recycling.
ALL-AROUND OPENING UP
With the Belt and Road Initiative paving the way, we will give greater meaning to the notion of opening up, increase our level of openness, and coordinate efforts to strengthen strategic mutual trust, investment and trade cooperation, and cultural exchanges. We will channel energy into realizing mutually beneficial cooperation based on deeper integration and bringing about a new stage in China’s opening up.
Chapter 49 Improve the Strategy for Opening Up
We will comprehensively advance bidirectional opening up, facilitate the orderly flow of domestic and international factors of production, the efficient allocation of domestic and international resources, and the deep integration of Chinese and foreign markets, and work faster in cultivating new international competitive edges.
Section 1 Regional Opening Up
We will strengthen the development of ports of entry and infrastructure in both inland and border regions and create cross-border multimodal transport corridors. We will develop outward-oriented industrial clusters and create centers of opening up with specialized areas of focus. We will accelerate the integration and upgrading of special customs control areas and improve the development of both border and cross-border economic cooperation zones. We will increase the level of international cooperation in economic and technological development zones. We will develop strategic support belts for inland opening up, relying on principal cities and city clusters in China’s interior. We will support coastal areas in fully participating in global economic cooperation and competition, give expression to the role of the Bohai Sea Rim, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta as portals of China’s opening up, and support these regions in taking the lead in embracing high-standard international rules for investment and trade
so as to cultivate internationally competitive economic zones. We will support the development of Ningxia and other inland open economic pilot zones as well as the development of the China-Singapore (Chongqing) Demonstration Initiative on Strategic Connectivity. We will advance the building of industrial parks for bilateral international cooperation. We will explore the establishment of a free trade port in Zhoushan.
International Cooperation on Production Capacity and Equipment Manufacturing
We will encourage more of China’s equipment, technology, standards, and services to go global by engaging in international cooperation on production capacity and equipment manufacturing through overseas investment, project contracting, technology cooperation, equipment exporting, and other means, with a focus on industries such as steel, nonferrous metals, building materials, railways, electric power, chemical engineering, textiles, automobiles, communications, engineering machinery, aviation and aerospace, shipbuilding, and ocean engineering. We will set up a repository for production capacity cooperation projects and promote major demonstration projects. We will guide enterprises in participating in international markets in ways that utilize their group advantage, and develop industrial clusters overseas suitable to local conditions. We will move faster in expanding bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms on production capacity and actively work with developed countries to jointly explore third party markets. We will put in place mechanisms to facilitate overall coordination and communication that involve the participation of enterprises, financial institutions, local governments, chambers of commerce, and industry associations. We will improve services such as taxation, finance, insurance, investment and financing platforms, and risk assessment to support efforts in this regard.
Section 3 Upgrading of Foreign Trade
We will implement a strategy of importing and exporting to our best advantage, promote a transformation in foreign trade toward better quality exports that command higher prices, optimize the mix of imports and exports, and work faster to build China into a trader of quality. We will promote the integrated development of trade in goods and trade in services, greatly promote trade in producer services, and see to it that the volume of trade in services accounts for at least 16% of total foreign trade. We will consolidate and improve on our traditional export strengths and encourage more innovation in the development of processing trade. We will improve the structure of foreign trade by promoting diversification in export markets and increasing the proportion of emerging markets while maintaining the share of traditional ones. We will encourage the development of new types of trade and work to develop export credit insurance. We will actively work to increase imports and improve the import structure by importing a greater amount of advanced technology, advanced equipment, and high- quality consumer goods. We will actively respond to foreign technical barriers to trade, improve early warnings of possible trade friction, and defuse trade tensions and disputes.
Foreign Capital and Outbound Investment
We will open more sectors to foreign investment, relax restrictions on market access, work proactively and effectively to bring in foreign capital and advanced technology, and increase the overall efficacy of foreign capital utilization. We will remove restrictions on market access for foreign capital in service sectors such as child care, architectural design, accounting, and auditing, and expand access to markets in the banking, insurance, securities, elderly care, and other sectors. We will encourage more foreign capital investment in sectors such as advanced manufacturing, new technology, energy conservation and environmental protection, and modern service industries as well as in the central, western, and northeastern regions, and will support the establishment of research and development centers with foreign capital. We will encourage Chinese financial institutions and enterprises to obtain financing in foreign markets. We will support enterprises in increasing overseas investment and becoming more deeply integrated into global production, value, and logistics chains. We will establish overseas production centers and cooperation zones for major commodities and actively build financial and information service platforms for outbound investment.
Chapter 50 Improve the New System of Opening Up
We will work to create a business environment that is more internationalized, convenient, and based on the rule of law, and to improve our institutions and mechanisms so as to make them more conducive to mutually beneficial cooperation and more compatible with international trade and investment rules.
Robust Business Environment
We will work to build a market that operates on the basis of fair competition, a government that operates cleanly and efficiently, policies and legislation that are marked by fairness and transparency, and a cultural environment that is open and inclusive. We will unify laws and regulations for domestic and foreign capital, introduce basic laws on foreign capital, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of foreign companies. We will improve work in developing pilot free trade zones, encourage exploration and experimentation in service sector opening up, financial sector opening up and innovation, investment and trade facilitation, and operational and post- operational oversight over businesses, and apply successful experiences to other areas. We will put into force a regulatory system across the board for foreign capital based on pre-establishment national treatment with a negative list approach. We will improve the national security review system for foreign investment. We will develop new ways to exercise oversight over and provide services for foreign capital. We will establish systems to facilitate new forms of trade, such as cross-border e-commerce, comprehensively implement the Single Window System, one-stop service, and the integration of regional customs clearance procedures, and fully promote the sharing and joint utilization of government information as well as joint efforts to prevent and control risks at ports of entry. We will improve systems for promoting trade in services and give play to the roles of chambers of commerce, industrial associations, and trade and investment promotion agencies. We will strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights as well as the enforcement of antitrust laws, and deepen international cooperation on law enforcement in this regard.
The Regulation System for Chinese Overseas Investment
We will improve outbound foreign investment planning as well as planning systems for such investment in key areas, regions, and countries. We will facilitate outbound investment by improving the regulation system which is based primarily on registration and requires approvals in only a small number of cases and by refining policies for outbound investment promotion and better service provision. We will promote outbound investment by individuals and improve the accredited domestic individual investors system. We will establish an auditing system for overseas investment by SOEs or using state capital, and improve performance assessment and accountability systems for such overseas operations.
Bidirectional Opening Up in the Financial Sector
We will take systematic steps to realize RMB capital account convertibility, making the RMB more convertible and freely usable, so as to steadily promote RMB internationalization and see RMB capital go global. We will steadily work to establish a foreign exchange regulation system based on a negative list approach. We will relax restrictions on remittances and exchange for the purpose of investing overseas and improve the management of foreign currency exchange for businesses and individuals. We will relax restrictions on the overseas capital operations of Chinese multinational companies and gradually increase the amount that domestic companies may lend to their overseas operations. We will support the insurance sector in going global and expand the scope of overseas insurance fund investments. We will unify foreign debt management for Chinese and foreign companies and financial institutions, steadily promote regulatory reforms so that enterprises only have to register their foreign debt, and improve the framework for unified management of both RMB and foreign currency- denominated foreign debt as well as for prudential management of capital flows. We will strengthen monitoring over the balance of payments. We will promote the
bidirectional opening up of capital markets, open stock and bond markets wider to foreign capital, and ease restrictions on domestic institutions in respect to international bond issuance as well as on overseas institutions in respect to issuing, investing in, and trading RMB- denominated bonds. We will help raise the level of internationalization of Chinese financial institutions by encouraging them to increase their number of overseas offices and improve their global service networks; at the same time, we will also further open up the domestic financial market to foreign institutions.
Section 4 Services for Opening Up
We will work with more countries to sign high-standard bilateral investment agreements, judicial assistance agreements, and taxation agreements, and strive to realize mutual visa exemptions or simplified visa procedures with more countries. We will build an efficient and effective system for safeguarding China’s overseas interests so as to protect the legitimate rights and interests of Chinese nationals and legal persons abroad. We will improve comprehensive management mechanisms for combating smuggling; improve regulatory measures for countering money laundering, terrorism financing, and tax evasion; and strengthen our risk management systems and mechanisms. We will improve China’s capacity for ensuring the safety of Chinese people overseas, improve the consular protection system, and work to provide convenient services for Chinese nationals overseas such as risk warning, investment promotion, and rights and interests safeguards. We will strengthen foreign-related legal services and put in place an assistance mechanism for the cross-border protection of intellectual property rights.
Chapter 51 Move Forward with the Belt and Road Initiative
We will uphold amity, sincerity, mutual benefit, and inclusiveness as well as the principle of joint discussion, common development, and shared growth as we look to undertake practical and mutually-beneficial cooperation in multiple sectors with countries and regions involved in the Belt and Road Initiative, with the aim of
developing a new picture of all-around opening up in which China is opened to the world through eastward and westward links and across land and sea.
Section 1 Cooperation Mechanisms
We will improve the bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms of the Belt and Road Initiative focusing on policy communication, infrastructure connectivity, trade facilitation, capital flow, and people-to- people exchanges. We will increase cohesion between the development plans and technological standards of China and those of other countries along the routes of the Belt and Road Initiative, make further efforts to facilitate transport among countries along the routes, and simplify customs clearance procedures along the routes. We will establish a diversified, project- based financing model that includes the participation of enterprises and institutions with enterprises as the main actors and that is led by investment funds of various types. We will strengthen cooperation with international organizations including international financial organizations and institutions, work actively to promote the development of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the New Development Bank, put the Silk Road Fund to effective use, and attract international capital for the creation of a financial cooperation platform that is open, pluralistic, and mutually beneficial. We will give full play to the role of overseas Chinese, returned overseas Chinese, and the relatives of overseas Chinese who live in China in fostering bridges of communication and bonds of friendship.
Section 2 Economic Corridors
We will actively advance the development of international economic cooperation corridors, such as the China-Mongolia-Russia corridor, the China-Central Asia-West Asia corridor, the China-Indochina Peninsula corridor, the new Eurasian Continental Bridge, the China-Pakistan corridor, and the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar corridor. We will increase infrastructure connectivity with neighboring countries and work with
them to build infrastructure networks that connect sub-regions within Asia as well as Asia, Europe, and Africa. We will strengthen international cooperation on energy and resources and production chains, and increase local processing and conversion. We will support the development of international container shipping services and postal train routes such as those between China and Europe. We will build an international logistics park for the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and a China-Kazakhstan logistics cooperation center. We will actively advance the construction of strategic maritime hubs along the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, participate in the building and operation of major ports along the road, and promote the joint development of industrial clusters around these ports to ensure that maritime trade routes are clear and free-flowing. We will advance the development of multi- modal transportation that integrates expressways, railways, waterways, and airways, build international logistics thoroughfares, and strengthen infrastructure development along major routes and at major ports of entry. We will work to develop Xinjiang as the core region for the Silk Road Economic Belt and Fujian as the core region for the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. We will work to develop the Maritime Silk Road Index into an influential international shipping indicator.
Open and Inclusive Cultural Exchanges
We will work to ensure the success of the International Summit for the Belt and Road Initiative and give expression to the role of the Silk Road (Dunhuang) International Culture Expo. We will conduct extensive international cooperation in the areas of education, science, technology, culture, sports, tourism, environmental protection, health care, and traditional Chinese medicine. We will create mechanisms for official and nongovernmental cultural exchanges that involve the participation of multiple parties; hold events such as culture years, art festivals, film festivals, and expos with other countries; encourage diverse kinds of folk culture exchanges; and give full expression to the positive role of folk cultures such as Mazu culture. We will coordinate China’s efforts with other countries to develop unique tourism products and increase the convenience of tourism. We will strengthen international exchanges and cooperation on health care and epidemic prevention and enhance our capacity to jointly handle public health emergencies with other countries. We will promote the establishment of think tank associations.
Chapter 52 Participate in Global Economic Governance
We will help reform and improve the international economic governance system, actively guide the international economic agenda, safeguard and consolidate the multilateral trade system, work to see the international economic order develop in a way that facilitates equality, fairness, mutual benefit, and cooperation, and work with other countries to deal with global challenges.
Principal Position of the Multilateral Trade System
Upholding the principle of mutual benefit, we will help promote the liberalization and facilitation of international trade and investment, and take a firm stance against all forms of trade protectionism. We will safeguard the status of the World Trade Organization as the main channel in international trade and investment, work for progress in multilateral trade negotiations, promote the balanced, mutually beneficial, and inclusive development of the multilateral trade system, and contribute to the development of international economic and trade rules that are just, reasonable, and transparent.
Regional and Bilateral Free Trade Systems
We will speed up efforts to implement the free trade area strategy, gradually establishing a network of high-standard free trade areas. We will actively engage in negotiations with countries and regions along the routes of the Belt and Road Initiative on the building of free trade areas; accelerate negotiations on regional comprehensive economic partnership agreements, the China-Gulf Cooperation Council Free Trade Area, and the China-Japan- RoK Free Trade Area; and work to achieve progress in developing
free trade relations with Israel, Canada, the Eurasian Economic Union, and the European Union as well as in building the Free Trade Area of the Asia- Pacific. We will ensure full implementation of our free trade agreements with the Republic of Korea and with Australia as well as the Protocol to Amend the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation between China and ASEAN. We will continue to pursue progress in negotiations on investment agreements between China and the United States and between China and the European Union.
The International Economic Governance System
We will actively participate in cooperation on global economic governance mechanisms, support the major platforms for global governance and those for regional cooperation in better playing their respective roles, and help make the global governance system more equal and sounder. We will support developing countries in participating in global economic governance on an equal footing and promote reform of the international monetary system and international financial regulation. We will strengthen international coordination of macroeconomic policies and promote global economic equilibrium, financial security, and stable economic growth. We will take an active role in formulating international rules in areas such as the internet, the deep sea, the polar regions, and aerospace. We will also take an active role in establishing international standards. We will work to ensure a successful G20 Summit in Hangzhou.
Chapter 53 Assume International Responsibilities and Obligations
We will increase the amount of foreign aid provided by China and improve the ways in which it is offered. We will offer more advice and training to other developing countries free of charge in areas such as human resources, development planning, and economic policy; expand foreign cooperation and aid in the areas of science, technology, education, medical care, disaster prevention and mitigation, environmental governance, the protection of wild fauna and flora, and poverty alleviation; and step up the
provision of humanitarian aid. We will actively implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We will help establish diversified systems for development financing. We will help safeguard international public security, combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, and actively support and participate in the peacekeeping operations of the United Nations. We will strengthen international cooperation on nonproliferation, participate in efforts to keep hotspots and sensitive areas under control, and work with other countries to maintain safety in international corridors. We will work to enhance multilateral and bilateral coordination, participate in international cyberspace governance, and help safeguard global cybersecurity. We will help promote international cooperation against corruption.
DEEPER COOPERATION BETWEEN THE MAINLAND, HONG KONG, MACAO, AND TAIWAN
We will support Hong Kong and Macao in consolidating their traditional strengths while cultivating new ones, and expand the peaceful growth of relations between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits, to achieve economic complementarity, mutual economic benefits, and common growth.
Chapter 54 Support Long-Term Prosperity, Stability, and Development in Hong Kong and Macao
We will implement, both to the letter and in spirit, the principles of “one country, two systems,” the people of Hong Kong governing Hong Kong, the people of Macao governing Macao, and both regions enjoying a high degree of autonomy, and stay true to the Constitution of China and the basic laws of these two regions. We will give expression to the distinctive strengths of Hong Kong and Macao, elevate their positions and roles in China’s economic development and opening up, and support them in
developing their economies, improving living standards, advancing democracy, and promoting harmony.
Toward a More Economically Competitive Hong Kong and Macao
We will support Hong Kong in strengthening and improving its status as an international financial, shipping, and trade center, and in strengthening its position as a global offshore RMB business hub and its function as an international asset management center. We will work to see Hong Kong moves its finance, trade, logistics, and professional services toward the high- end and high value-added level. We will support Hong Kong in pursuing innovation, science, and technology and cultivating emerging industries. We will support Hong Kong in becoming a center for international legal and dispute resolution services in the Asia-Pacific. We will support Macao in becoming a major destination for international leisure and tourism and a service platform for trade and cooperation between China and Portuguese- speaking countries, actively developing its industries in areas such as conventions and exhibitions, trade, and commerce, and promoting an appropriate level of diversity in its economy in order to achieve sustainable economic development.
Deeper Cooperation between the Mainland and Hong Kong and Macao
We will support Hong Kong and Macao in participating in the country’s bidirectional opening up and the Belt and Road Initiative, and encourage mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao enterprises to go global by capitalizing on their respective strengths and multiple forms of partnership with each other. We will open the mainland up more widely to Hong Kong and Macao and work to improve the Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement between the mainland and the two regions. We will deepen financial cooperation and accelerate market connectivity between the mainland and Hong Kong. We will deepen mainland exchange and cooperation with Hong Kong and Macao in relation to social development, living standards, culture, education,
environmental protection, and other areas, support cooperation in relation to innovation, science, and technology, and encourage micro, small, and medium businesses as well as young people from Hong Kong and Macao to start businesses on the mainland. We will support joint efforts by Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao to build a quality living area in the Greater Pearl River Delta region and accelerate the development of Qianhai, Nansha, and Hengqin as platforms for cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao. We will encourage Hong Kong and Macao to play an important role in promoting cooperation in the Greater Pearl River Delta region, and advance the development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and major trans- provincial cooperation platforms.
Chapter 55 Promote Peaceful Cross-Straits Relations and China’s Reunification
We will uphold the 1992 Consensus and the One China policy, and firmly oppose the independence of Taiwan. On the basis of these principles, we will help deepen mutually beneficial economic cooperation between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits, expand areas of cooperation between and increase people’s wellbeing on both sides, and strengthen and promote peaceful relations between the two sides.
Cross-Straits Economic Integration
We will help strengthen communication on macro-level policies between the two sides, expand economic cooperation, and deepen common interests. We will work to see that industries on the two sides achieve a better complementarity of strengths and a deeper integration of development, and encourage mainland and Taiwan companies to increase reciprocal holdings as well as to work together in making innovations, building brand names, and expanding markets. We will work toward deeper cross-Straits financial cooperation and support multilevel cooperation between mainland and Taiwan capital markets. We will help expand and upgrade cross-Straits trade and investment. We will open the mainland more widely to Taiwan’s service industries and work for greater cooperation in areas such as agriculture, fishery, small and medium enterprises,
and e-commerce. We will further develop the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone and the China (Fujian) Pilot Free Trade Zone, establish platforms for cooperation with Taiwan such as the Taiwan Investment Zone, the Pingtan Comprehensive Experimental Area, Fuzhou New Area, and Kunshan Experimental Mainland-Taiwan Industrial Cooperation Area, and expand efforts to build Xiamen into a hub for cooperation with Taiwan. We will encourage regions which host concentrations of Taiwan-invested companies such as the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and the Bohai Sea Rim to give expression to their strengths, support transformation and upgrading in these companies, and guide them in gradually moving their operations toward the central and western regions.
Cross-Straits Cultural and Social Exchanges
We will encourage individuals from the two sides to interact with each other more frequently, improve treatment policies and measures for our Taiwan compatriots, and make it more convenient for people from Taiwan to work, study, and live on the mainland. We will help strengthen cultural exchanges and cooperation between the two sides of the Straits, work together with Taiwan in promoting Chinese culture, and enhance our common cultural and national identity. We will help deepen educational exchanges and cooperation, work to increase the number of mutually recognized university credentials and degrees, and advance the development of the Experimental District for Fujian-Taiwan Vocational Educational Exchanges and Cooperation. We will encourage joint efforts between the two sides of the Straits in conducting science, technology, and research and development projects, and deepen cross-Straits academic exchanges. We will help strengthen community-level and youth exchanges between both sides so as to benefit ordinary people, the youth, and small and medium enterprises in Taiwan.
THE FIGHT AGAINST POVERTY
Based on our political and institutional strengths, we will implement the fundamental strategy of targeted poverty reduction, develop new mechanisms and models for poverty alleviation, adopt unconventional measures, and step up our efforts to ensure success in the battle against poverty.
Chapter 56 Take Targeted Poverty Reduction Measures
In keeping with the need to ensure that poverty reduction efforts are well- defined in terms of targeting population, designing projects, using funds, implementing measures, appointing village personnel, and achieving outcomes, we will work to see that assistance programs become more effective so that people living in poverty in rural areas have adequate food and clothing and are able to access compulsory education, basic medical care, and safe housing.
New Development-Based Poverty Reduction Methods
We will adopt categorized, targeted poverty alleviation measures that are focused on addressing the causes of poverty and providing the support needed to ensure its alleviation. We will support approximately 50 million people, who have registered as being economically disadvantaged, in lifting themselves out of poverty by ensuring that they can, among other things, develop businesses based on local strengths, find alternative employment, relocate, claim subsidies for ecosystem conservation, and gain access to educational and training programs, medical insurance, and assistance for medical treatment. We will ensure that other poor populations—those who have partially or completely lost the capacity to work—have their basic living needs met through social security policies. We will explore a system for supporting those living in poverty by helping them realize returns on asset investments, ensuring they gain a greater share of returns through land trusts, through the transfer of poverty alleviation funds into shares of equivalent value in rural cooperatives and enterprises, and through
the granting of shares in rural cooperatives and enterprises in exchange for the contribution of land-use rights.
Targeted Poverty Reduction Mechanisms
We will identify and register those living in poverty throughout the country. We will strengthen dynamic statistical monitoring of these populations, establish records for targeted poverty reduction efforts, and strengthen regular review and dynamic management to ensure records are updated regularly. We will put in place a household assessment mechanism for poverty alleviation, and formulate strict, well-defined, and transparent standards, procedures, and review measures to allow for the withdrawal of counties that have eradicated poverty from assistance programs. We will establish mechanisms for public oversight over poverty reduction performance, conduct public satisfaction surveys on poverty reduction efforts in poor areas, and put in place mechanisms for tracking and auditing how poverty reduction policies are implemented and for third party poverty reduction performance evaluation.
Chapter 57 Support Accelerated Development of Poor Areas
In the battle against poverty, we will focus our efforts on old revolutionary bases, areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities, border areas, and contiguous poor areas; continue to increase investment in poverty reduction in contiguous areas with acute difficulties; strengthen the ability of poor areas to tap into their development potential; and ensure that the per capita disposable income of farmers in these areas increases faster than the national average and that indicators for the main types of basic public services there approach national averages.
Section 1 Infrastructure Construction
We will work according to local conditions in poor areas in addressing issues such as roads, water, power, and internet access. We will construct transportation corridors, creating links within poor areas and connecting them with other areas. We will build 152,000 kilometers of asphalt or concrete roads in incorporated villages. We will improve water conservancy facilities in poor areas, ensure that all people living in poverty have access to safe drinking water, and support hydropower development in poor rural areas. We will step up work on upgrading power grids in poor rural areas. We will work to ensure that broadband internet networks cover over 90% of poor villages. We will increase investment in programs designed to replace direct relief with work, and support the construction of small and medium public benefit infrastructure in poor areas. We will continue to work at the village level to eradicate poverty, and speed up efforts to improve production and living conditions in poor villages.
Section 2 Improved Public Services
Giving high priority to registered poor households, we will complete all work on renovating dilapidated housing so as to guarantee safe housing for these households. We will improve basic public services in poor areas, improving the quality of education and medical services. We will carry out a number of cultural projects to benefit people and help reduce poverty, and work to see that county-level public cultural and sports facilities in poor areas meet national standards.
Chapter 58 Improve Poverty Reduction Systems
We will improve policy support for poverty reduction, build sound mechanisms, and develop new models as well as corresponding evaluation systems, so that there is strong support in place to sustain the fight against poverty.
We will work to increase the amount that governments at central and provincial levels spend on poverty reduction, ensure complementarity between policy-backed financing, development financing, commercial financing, and cooperative financing, bring together all available resources for poverty reduction, and open up new sources of funding. We will give preference to meeting land-use needs related to development- based poverty reduction, setting annual quotas for increases in land designated for construction in poor counties. We will step up support for land regulation in poor areas, allowing poor counties to use their quotas for land designated for urban and rural construction purposes anywhere within the scope of their respective provincial jurisdictions. In poor areas where collective land is used for developing hydropower or extracting mineral resources, we will carry out trials to compensate local residents by offering collective equity stakes. We will improve the benefit-sharing mechanisms for resource development, so as to enable poor areas to acquire a greater share in the benefits therein. We will increase efforts to reduce poverty through science and technology. We will provide talent support for poor areas and assist in the training of local personnel.
Section 2 Greater Participation
We will improve the mechanisms for poverty reduction collaboration between the eastern and western regions and the mechanisms for Party and government offices, the military, people’s organizations, and SOEs to help lift designated poor areas out of poverty. We will encourage and support the participation of private enterprises, social organizations, and individuals in development-based poverty reduction, and guide social actors to shift the focus of their poverty reduction efforts to villages or households so as to effectively combine social resources with targeted government measures. We will develop new models of participation, support the establishment of industry investment funds and public interest trust funds, encourage volunteers to take part in poverty reduction efforts, and ensure that social workers are serving poor areas. We will work hard to see that brands well- known for poverty reduction are created.
The Responsibility System for Poverty Alleviation
We will further improve mechanisms by which the central government undertakes overall planning, governments of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government take overall responsibility, and municipal (prefectural) and county governments ensure implementation. We will strengthen poverty-alleviation performance evaluation for officials, fully implementing the measures for performance evaluation of development-based poverty reduction efforts, and giving high priority in government performance assessments in poor counties to measuring the effectiveness of poverty alleviation. We will establish a system for overseeing poverty reduction efforts, and strengthen corresponding accountability.
1. Locally viable industries
Poverty Alleviation Programs
§ Focus on supporting poor villages and households in developing planting and husbandry industries and industries related to traditional crafts;
§ Implement the “one village one leading industry” program to promote the development of industry in poor villages;
§ Put into action the “Internet +” industry-based poverty reduction initiative;
§ Promote the development of e-business-based, solar power-based, and rural tourism-based poverty alleviation, to help more than 30 million people lift themselves out of poverty.
2. Export of labor services
§ Strengthen implementation of the vocational training plan and the education and training program for poor households, ensuring that members of a poor household who are fit to work acquire at least one work skill;
§ Implement initiatives to match labor with market demand;
§ Provide better guidance and other employment services;
§ Guide young and middle-aged members of the workforce in poor areas in seeking employment in other areas by matching labor supply and demand between these areas, thereby helping ten million people lift themselves out of poverty by finding alternative employment.
3. Relocations from inhospitable areas
§ Relocate approximately ten million people living in poverty in inhospitable areas;
§ Provide these people with new housing as well as the necessary
supporting infrastructure and basic public service facilities;
§ Create more jobs for these people through the development of small towns and industrial parks;
§ Work to help relocated people improve their self-development capacity;
§ Ensure adequate employment opportunities and stable poverty reduction.
4. Transportation development
§ Build or upgrade one million kilometers of rural roads including roads for facilitating the development of tourism, resources, and industrial parks in poor areas;
§ Carry out 100 key transportation projects to connect poor areas with the national trunk highway network.
5. Ecological conservation
§ In assisting those people living in poverty in ecologically sensitive or vulnerable areas (including river basins), focus on increasing subsidies for ecological conservation and implementing ecological protection and restoration projects in order to create more jobs and raise incomes.
§ Improve the basic conditions of badly built and poorly operated schools providing compulsory education in poor areas throughout the country;
§ Strengthen training for teachers working in rural areas;
§ Ensure effective implementation of the nutrition improvement project for students receiving compulsory education in rural areas;
§ Step up aid and financial support for students from poor families receiving pre-school education, special needs education, and senior secondary and higher education;
§ Continue to implement the initiative to provide targeted training for people living in poverty in rural areas, ensuring that all high school graduates from poor families who have failed to receive higher education have access to vocational education.
7. Health care and social security
§ Provide medical assistance for those who have been driven into poverty by medical expenses;
§ Ensure notable progress is made in improving medical services in poor areas;
§ Move forward with pairing programs linking poor counties with health care institutions at and above Grade II nationwide;
§ Ensure that households unable to escape poverty through industry-based support or employment assistance schemes have their basic needs met through social security programs, and that all eligible households living in poverty are supported through subsistence allowances.
§ Issue policy-based financial bonds and special bonds to ensure funding for development-based poverty reduction efforts;
§ Introduce poverty reduction related relending to guide financial
BETTER EDUCATION AND HEALTH FOR ALL CITIZENS
With special emphasis on strengthening people’s capacity for self-development, we will raise levels of education, health, and medical services throughout society and ensure that the people know more about science and culture and are in better health, so as to move faster to build China into a country rich in human capital.
Chapter 59 Modernize Education
We will implement the Party’s policy on education in all areas, continue to prioritize the development of education, and make faster progress in improving the modern education system in order to raise the overall quality of education, promote fairness in education, and promote the moral, intellectual, physical, and artistic development of people so that they will build up and take up the baton of socialism.
Balanced Development of Basic Public Education
We will establish a unified urban and rural funding mechanism for compulsory education which places emphasis on rural areas, and increase funding for public education in the central and western regions, remote or poor areas, and areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities. We will take appropriate measures to ensure that state-run schools that provide compulsory education comply with educational standards, improve conditions in boarding schools as well as badly built and poorly operated schools, improve the regional layout of education institutions and services, work to eliminate extremely large class sizes in urban schools, achieve a basic balance between schools in the same county in the allocation of educational resources, and raise the completion rate of compulsory education to 95%. We will strengthen the ranks of teachers with emphasis on those teachers in rural schools, implement a support plan for rural teachers, and address structural, school level-specific, and regional teacher shortages through methods such as the provision of government-purchased teaching positions. We will improve the teaching environment in rural schools. We will help make rural preschool education more accessible by encouraging the development of rural kindergartens open to all children, carry out the three-year preschool education plan, and work to see the gross enrollment ratio for children receiving three-year preschool education rise to 85%. We will work to make senior secondary school education more universal and give high priority to waiving fees for senior secondary school students registered as economically disadvantaged students, with the aim of seeing the gross enrollment ratio rise to over 90%. We will increase the availability and quality of special needs education for groups with disabilities, and increase support given to such education. We will actively promote the development of education for ethnic minority students, appropriately move ahead with bilingual education, and strengthen bilingual teacher training.
Integration of Industry and Vocational Education
We will improve the modern vocational education system and strengthen infrastructure in vocational education. If conditions are suitable, colleges providing undergraduate education will be encouraged to become applied institutions. We will give impetus to training models for applied expertise or technical skills which allow for the involvement of industry and vocational education as well as cooperation between schools and enterprises, and promote two-way exchanges between faculty members
from vocational schools and technical staff members from enterprises. We will prompt the development of production-oriented majors, class content, and teaching methods. We will promote mutual recognition and vertical mobility between vocational education and regular education. We will phase in, based on classification, the waiving of tuition and miscellaneous fees at schools providing secondary vocational education and put into effect a national program to offer basic vocational training packages.
University Capacity to Produce Innovators
We will develop the modern university system and refine the internal governance structures of universities. We will cultivate a first-class teaching staff and update teaching content with new theories, knowledge, and techniques. We will improve the system for ensuring the quality of higher education. We will manage higher education based on classification and carry out the comprehensive reform of institutions of higher learning to ensure that they optimize the arrangement of their disciplines and majors, reform their training mechanisms, implement an educational system using different methods to cultivate academic talent and applied talent whilst combining general knowledge and major-specific knowledge, strengthen instruction through practice, and nurture the capacity of students for creativity, innovation, and starting businesses. We will invigorate higher education in the central and western regions and see that more students from these regions and rural areas are able to enter key institutions of higher learning. We will ensure that all universities improve their capacity for innovation, and will adopt a coordinated approach to developing world- class universities and disciplines.
Toward a Learning Society
We will emphasize the development of continuing education and build a system for lifelong learning and training available to all members of society. We will encourage the open sharing of all types of learning resources, ensure the success of open
universities, develop online and distance learning, and integrate all kinds of digital learning resources to make them available to the general public. We will establish a system for personal learning accounts and credits, make it easier for people to pursue continuing education and lifelong learning, formulate a national qualifications framework, and promote credit transfers and recognition of the learning outcomes of non-degree education and vocational skill grades. We will develop senior citizen education.
Education Reform and Development
We will deepen education reform to increase students’ sense of social responsibility, their awareness of rule of law, their spirit of innovation, and their ability to put ideas into practice; to strengthen education in sports, physical health, mental health, the arts, and aesthetics; and to cultivate students’ interest in innovation and their scientific literacy. We will deepen reform of the examination and enrollment systems as well as instructional reform. We will administer the Academic Proficiency Test and the Comprehensive Student Assessment to junior and senior secondary school students. We will launch a nationwide reform of the professional title system for primary and secondary school teachers and improve teacher salaries and benefits. We will promote close integration of modern information technology with education and teaching. We will guarantee certain levels of spending on education in accordance with the law. We will operate on the principle of separation between the management, running, and assessment of schools, expand the decision-making powers of schools, improve inspection of and oversight over education, and strengthen social oversight over education. We will put in place a system of policies for management according to institution type and for the provision of differentiated support, and encourage nongovernmental actors and investors to provide a diverse range of education services. We will improve the financial support system and ensure that all students from financially disadvantaged families are covered.
§ Gradually ensure that state-run compulsory education schools that cannot yet meet required standards work to bring their buildings, premises, and staffing up to standard.
2. Senior secondary education access plan
§ Increase senior secondary education resources in poor areas in the central and western regions, particularly in contiguous poor areas;
§ See that basically all junior secondary school graduates in poor parts of these regions who did not enroll in regular senior secondary education enter into secondary vocational schooling.
3. Development of kindergartens open to all children
§ Strengthen the development of such kindergartens, focusing particularly on making sure children of kindergarten age in rural parts of the central and western regions as well as children born in urban areas after the introduction of the two- child policy have access to kindergarten education.
4. Integration of education into industry
§ Support 100 higher vocational institutions and 1,000 secondary vocational schools in strengthening cooperation with enterprises to develop vocational education internship and training facilities;
§ Support colleges providing undergraduate education in improving their basic conditions including facilities for teaching, conducting experiments, and training;
§ Establish a number of high-quality applied undergraduate colleges;
§ Support the development of clusters of emerging disciplines and majors to serve modern industry through cooperation between universities and enterprises.
5. Development of world-class universities and disciplines
§ Give high priority to supporting the development of a number of world- class universities and disciplines, and ensuring that some disciplines reach the highest ranks worldwide;
§ Continue the initiative to improve universities’ capacity for innovation.
6. Development of continuing education
§ Support higher learning institutions and vocational institutions in providing continuing education and training for migrant workers in cities, modern professional farmers, modern industrial workers, and demobilized service personnel;
§ Establish personal learning accounts and an academic credit certification platform.
7. Teacher development
§ Support the development of teacher training and launch a program to cultivate high-caliber teachers;
§ Add to bilingual teacher numbers in areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities and to secondary vocational teacher numbers in poor areas;
§ Recruit teachers for the special rural teacher program every year to gradually bring their number to 100,000;
§ Build accommodations for teachers in rural areas;
§ Implement the head teacher plan in primary and secondary schools in the
Chapter 60 Promote a Healthy China
We will deepen reform of the healthcare system. With an emphasis on prevention, we will establish a sound basic healthcare system, see that all members of society have access to basic healthcare services, and get everyone exercising to see that they become more healthy.
Section 1 Healthcare Reform
We will coordinate medical services, medical insurance, and pharmaceutical reforms, promote the separation of medical care from pharmacy operations, and establish a sound basic healthcare system covering all citizens. We will execute comprehensive reform of all public hospitals to see that they are there to serve the public without having to make a profit, their operational costs are lowered, and markups on pharmaceuticals are gradually eliminated. We will carry out pricing reform for medical
services and improve public hospital compensation mechanisms. We will establish modern hospital management systems, see that public hospitals act as independent legal persons, and establish staffing and remuneration systems suited to the particular characteristics of the healthcare industry. We will improve the system of essential medicines, deepen reform of logistics systems for pharmaceuticals and consumables, and improve medicine supply mechanisms. We will encourage the research and development of new medicines, and give precedence to newly developed medicines available on the market and medicines that have passed evaluations for consistency in adding to the catalogue of medicines covered by healthcare insurance. We will encourage nongovernmental actors to provide healthcare services and see that nonprofit private hospitals enjoy treatment equal to that of public hospitals. We will strengthen oversight over the healthcare industry across the board, improve the quality of health care, and ensure that health care is safe. We will create a better work environment for medical practitioners, and improve mechanisms for mediating disputes between them and patients to facilitate more amicable relations.
The Medical Insurance System for All Citizens
We will improve the mechanisms to ensure stable and sustainable funding for medical insurance and to adjust reimbursement rates for medical expenses, and will improve payment policies for medical insurance premiums. We will fully implement the major disease insurance scheme for rural and non-working urban residents, and improve the assistance systems for major or serious diseases and for emergency disease treatment. We will work to lower the treatment costs of major and chronic diseases. We will reform medical insurance management and payment methods and keep medical expenses at a reasonable level, ensuring a sustainable balance of medical insurance funds. We will improve the personal account side of the basic medical insurance scheme and bring outpatient expenditures under unified management. We will work to keep the medical insurance participation rate for rural and non-working urban residents above 95%. We will accelerate efforts to enable medical bills incurred in any locality to be settled through basic medical insurance accounts and see that a retiree living in a different province from that in which premium payments were made can settle inpatient expenditures where they were incurred. We will integrate the medical insurance policies for rural and non-working urban residents along with the management of insurance. We
will encourage commercial insurance agencies to participate in providing medical insurance. We will merge maternity insurance into the basic medical insurance scheme. We will encourage the development of supplemental medical insurance and commercial health insurance. We will explore the establishment of insurance schemes for long-term care and begin launching trials in this regard. We will improve the medical malpractice insurance system.
Major Disease Prevention and Treatment and Basic Public Healthcare Services
We will improve both basic and major national public healthcare service programs and provide better quality services in a more efficient and equitable way. We will strengthen capacity for providing public healthcare services at the community level. We will strengthen capabilities development in areas in need of attention such as maternal and infant healthcare, public healthcare, tumor and mental illness prevention and treatment, and pediatrics. We will implement a comprehensive strategy for the effective prevention and control of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, brain, and vascular diseases as well as diabetes, malignant tumors, respiratory disease, and mental illness. We will strengthen the prevention and control of major communicable diseases by working to lower prevalence of hepatitis B among the general population, keep HIV prevalence low, reduce the incidence rate of tuberculosis to 58 cases per 100,000 people, basically eradicate schistosomiasis, and eliminate malaria and leprosy. We will ensure that work on the prevention and control of major localized diseases is carried out to proper effect. We will strengthen quarantine capabilities at ports of entry to keep out major communicable diseases. We will conduct surveys on and ensure the prevention and control of occupational diseases. We will provide greater free supplies of special medicines for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and other diseases. We will strengthen efforts to provide health education for everyone so as to spread health- related awareness and knowledge. We will make a major push to prohibit smoking in public places. We will step up patriotic health campaigns and efforts to improve the level of urban health. We will strengthen efforts to work out a national nutrition plan and the provision of psychological health services.
Maternal and Infant Healthcare and Childbirth Services
We will implement an assistance program for hospital childbirths and provide pregnant and postnatal women with free, basic healthcare services throughout every stage of childbirth. We will strengthen the comprehensive prevention and treatment of birth defects and establish a system for providing free services covering all citizens for the prevention and treatment of birth defects during pre-pregnancy, prenatal, and neonatal stages. We will comprehensively improve capacity for providing maternal and infant healthcare services, step up efforts to prevent and control major diseases affecting women and children, increase screening rates and early diagnosis and treatment rates for common gynecological diseases, and strengthen childhood disease prevention and treatment and childhood injury prevention. We will fully implement the project to improve child nutrition and increase newborn screening in poor areas. The infant mortality rate will be reduced to 7.5 per 1,000, the under-five mortality rate to 9.5 per 1,000, and the maternal mortality rate to 18 per 100,000.
The Medical Service System
We will optimize the structure of our medical institution systems, promoting integration of functions and innovations in services. We will strengthen divisions of labor and coordination between specialized public health institutions, community-level medical and healthcare institutions, and hospitals by improving the medical service system to better ensure cooperation, coordination, and complementarity between institutions at different levels. We will improve the community-level medical service model, make headway in improving the capacity of general practitioners (family practitioners), advance the use of electronic health records, and put into effect a healthcare model based on households directly contracting with family practitioners for service. We will fully establish a tiered medical diagnosis and treatment system. With an emphasis on raising the capacity of community-level medical services, we will improve service networks, operational mechanisms, and incentive mechanisms and implement differentiated medical insurance payout and pricing systems. We will develop a more
logical system for obtaining medical care and see that a system is basically put in place whereby a patient’s initial diagnosis takes place at a community-level institution, referrals are made between medical institutions, medical institutions at different levels cooperate with each other, and different approaches are adopted in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases. We will strengthen the ranks of healthcare workers by implementing a program to ensure that we have the medical personnel needed to cater to the healthcare needs of all members of society, putting in place a plan to train and make use of general practitioners and pediatricians, and improving standardized resident physician training programs. We will encourage more medical resources to flow to the central and western regions, community-level institutions, and rural areas by improving working environments and salaries for those in the medical profession. We will improve the system for allowing doctors to work at more than one medical institution. We will put clinical pathways into full practice. We will raise the capacity for health information services and big data applications, develop telemedicine, and promote smarter health care. We will see that the number of active physicians (physician assistants) reaches 2.5 per 1,000 people.
Section 6 Traditional Chinese Medicine
We will improve the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) healthcare service system by developing new TCM service models and raising capacity for providing community-level services. We will strengthen TCM clinical research centers and research institutions. We will develop TCM health services. We will conduct surveys of TCM resources, strengthen their protection, and create a database and knowledgebase of ancient writings on TCM. We will work more quickly to develop TCM standards to help boost the TCM industry. We will establish seed and seedling development centers for medicinal materials commonly used in TCM as well as those from specific areas or those that are endangered, and promote the green development of the medicinal herb growing industry. We will support the development of ethnic minority traditional medicine. We will promote the adoption of technologies suitable for use in TCM and help TCM services to go global.
Getting Everybody Exercising
We will implement a fitness strategy to get the nation moving. We will develop the physical activity field by strengthening venues and facilities for popular fitness activities and ensuring that public sports facilities are open either free of charge or at low cost to the public. We will promote sports among young people, help them cultivate their sporting abilities and an interest in sports, popularize soccer, basketball, volleyball, and winter sports, and improve monitoring of the health of young people. We will develop popular fitness and recreational activities, encourage the implementation of work-break fitness programs, and help guide people toward exercising in a scientific way. We will promote the comprehensive and coordinated development of recreational and competitive sports. We will encourage nongovernmental initiatives to develop the sports industry. We will ensure preparations go smoothly in the lead-up to the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games.
Food and Medicine Safety
We will implement the food safety strategy. We will improve food safety laws and regulations, raise food safety standards, focus greater effort on addressing food safety problems at the source, require all food enterprises to assume responsibility for food safety, exercise grid-based oversight, increase the frequency of inspections and the coverage of sample- based monitoring, and achieve product traceability throughout the whole production chain. We will develop model food safety cities. We will deepen reform of the evaluation and approval system for pharmaceuticals and medical appliances and explore reform of evaluation institutions based on an independent corporate governance model. We will promote management of pharmaceutical enterprises by level and by type. We will accelerate improvements to the food regulatory system and build a sound governance system for food and medicine safety that is thorough, efficient, and based on co-governance by social actors. We will step up food and medicine safety governance in rural areas and improve oversight over online
sales of food and medicine. We will conduct tighter oversight over imported food and medicine.
Action Plan for a Healthy China
1. Disease prevention and treatment and basic public healthcare services
§ Gradually increase the range of free basic public healthcare services available to all citizens;
§ Increase capacity to prevent and treat severe, difficult, and complicated diseases including cardiovascular, brain, and vascular diseases, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases;
§ Reduce the rate of mortality due to major chronic diseases by 10%;
§ Strengthen capabilities regarding emergency medical assistance, disease prevention and control, mental health care, blood donation centers, and health oversight;
§ Support development in both key and weak areas including pediatrics, tumor, cardiovascular, brain, and vascular diseases, diabetes, mental illnesses, communicable diseases, and occupational diseases.
2. Promote maternal and infant health
§ Provide free maternal and child health information handbooks;
§ Make free pre-pregnancy health exams available to all women to help ensure the birth of healthy babies;
§ Give free vaccines to children within the scope of the national immunization plan;
§ Provide free maternal and infant care services;
§ Expand the scope of cervical and breast cancer screenings;
§ Strengthen our capacity for treating emergencies and serious conditions in prenatal and postnatal women and newborns;
§ Implement a program to ensure maternal and infant healthcare and family planning services;
§ Increase the number of hospital beds for childbirths by 89,000 and the number of obstetricians and midwives by 140,000.
3. Birth defect prevention and treatment
§ Include screening for 20 complications including Down syndrome, deafness, and thalassemia as well as congenital heart disease in the plan for the comprehensive prevention and control of birth defects;
§ Strive to see that conditions within the scope of this plan are detected and treated so as to effectively reduce the incidence of birth defects.
4. Strengthen the provision of community-level medical services
§ Focusing on poor areas in the central and western regions, ensure each county prioritizes the operation of one or two county-level public hospitals (including county-level TCM hospitals), and that the proportion of community-level medical institutions meeting standards reaches over 95%;
§ Ensure that community-level medical services can be reached from anywhere within 30 minutes;
§ Strengthen and standardize training for 500,000 resident doctors, and ensure the number of general practitioners rises to two for every 10,000 people.
5. Pass on and innovate traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)
§ Improve the infrastructure of TCM hospitals;
§ Support the development of major disciplines and fields of TCM;
§ Strengthen the cultivation of TCM practitioners;
§ Put into effect an action plan to promote the standardization of traditional Chinese medicines and the traditional medicines of ethnic minorities.
6. Smarter healthcare
§ Put into place “Internet +” healthcare services across the board;
§ Develop regional population health information platforms;
§ Expand the use of electronic health records;
§ Promote the application of big data in health care;
§ Establish a number of regional health information demonstration centers for clinical medicine.
7. Popular fitness
§ Step up physical fitness testing;
§ Promote fitness guidance services;
§ Promote the construction of fitness facilities to see that such facilities can be reached within 15 minutes from anywhere in urban communities;
§ Work to see that community sports services are available to all permanent residents of towns and townships and that sports and fitness facility projects are available to all rural residents;
§ Strengthen the construction of public sports facilities including soccer fields and fitness centers as well as the training of reserve athletes.
8. Food and medicine safety
§ Comprehensively raise capacity for food and medicine governance by improving technical support systems for inspections and testing as well as IT-based oversight systems, building a contingent of professional food and medicine inspectors, and ensuring that the equipment of oversight bodies at all levels is up to standard.
SUPPORT FOR PUBLIC WELLBEING
On the basis that everyone participates, works hard, and shares in the benefits, we will ensure that basic needs are met, focus on key areas, improve systems, and guide
expectations. At the same time, we will emphasize equal opportunities, guarantee basic living standards, constantly work to improve public wellbeing, and ensure that all our people can enjoy moderate prosperity together.
Chapter 61 Provide More Public Services
Public services should be inclusive, equitable, and sustainable and should guarantee the basic needs of the people. With a focus on solving the most practical problems that are of greatest concern to and most directly affect the people, we will increase government responsibility for providing public services, see that all sectors become more involved in public service provision, and ensure that public services are accessible to a greater number of people.
Equitable Access to Basic Public Services
With a focus on seeing standards are met, ensuring equitable access, and establishing a strong legal framework, we will accelerate efforts to improve national systems and institutions for providing basic public services. We will put in place a national catalogue of basic public services, carry out dynamic adjustments to services and service standards, and promote cohesion between service programs and standards for urban and rural areas and for different regions. We will reasonably increase the administrative authority and spending responsibilities for basic public services of the central and provincial-level governments. We will improve networks of services at the community level, strengthen resource integration, improve management efficiency, and promote transparency in service projects, procedures, reviews, and oversight.
Diversified Public Service Needs
We will open the market, improve regulation, and work to increase the supply of non-basic public services and products. We will actively promote faster development of non-basic public services in areas such as health care, elderly care, culture, and sports, enrich service products, improve the quality of services, and provide personalized service solutions. We will actively apply new technologies, develop new forms of business, and promote integration between online and offline services, enabling people to enjoy efficient, convenient, and high-quality services.
Innovative Public Service Provision
We will promote diversification in the methods of service provision. The government will no longer directly operate public services that can be provided through service procurement. For public services that can be provided through public-private partnerships, extensive efforts will be made to attract nongovernmental investment. We will complete and release a catalogue for the procurement of public services, and introduce competitive mechanisms through means such as franchising, designated commissioning, strategic cooperation, and competitive evaluation. We will develop new systems and mechanisms for public institutions engaged in public-interest services and help to see them improve their corporate governance, and we will promote the transformation of public institutions engaged in production and business operations into enterprises.
§ Basic public employment services;
§ Services for business startups;
§ Employment assistance;
§ Internship services;
§ Joint recruitment services in large and medium cities;
§ Vocational skills training and skills evaluation;
§ Training for migrant workers;
§ 12333 telephone consultation service;
§ Labor relations coordination;
§ Employment dispute mediation and arbitration.
3. Social insurance
§ Basic old-age insurance for workers;
§ Basic old-age insurance for non-working residents;
§ Basic medical insurance for workers;
§ Basic medical insurance for non-working residents;
§ Unemployment insurance;
§ Workers’ compensation;
§ Maternity insurance.
4. Heath care and family planning
§ Heath record systems for residents;
§ Health education;
§ Disease prevention and immunization;
§ Services to handle contagious diseases and public health emergencies;
§ Child health management;
§ Pre- and post-natal maternal health management;
§ Senior health management;
§ Health management for people with disabilities and community rehabilitation programs;
§ Chronic disease management;
§ Management for patients with serious mental disabilities;
§ Sanitation supervision and collaborative management;
§ Health management for tuberculosis patients;
§ Health management through traditional Chinese medicine;
§ Follow-up management for HIV/AIDS patients;
§ Community HIV intervention among high-risk groups;
§ Free pre-pregnancy health examinations;
§ Disease emergency aid services;
§ The system of essential medicines;
§ Guidance and consultation services regarding family planning methods;
§ Awards and assistance to a portion of families in rural areas following family planning policy;
§ Special assistance to families following family planning policy;
§ Safeguards for drug safety.
5. Social services
§ Subsistence allowances;
§ Basic assistance to persons living in extreme poverty;
§ Medical assistance;
§ Temporary assistance;
§ Assistance to disaster victims;
§ Elderly assistance;
§ Welfare allowances for the elderly;
§ Differentiated assistance programs for children living in difficulties;
§ Care and protection services for children left behind in rural areas;
§ Social protection for minors;
§ Basic funeral services;
§ Benefits for entitled groups;
§ Job provision for demobilized military personnel;
§ Centralized services to provide care to key entitled groups.
6. Housing support
§ Public rental housing;
§ Rebuilding of run-down urban areas;
§ Renovation of dilapidated rural housing;
§ Rural earthquake-resistant housing renovation;
§ Permanent housing for nomadic groups.
7. Culture and sports
§ Free access to public cultural facilities;
§ Public-interest mobile cultural services;
§ Access to radio and television programming;
§ Digital movie projection in rural areas;
§ Access to books and newspapers;
§ Emergency broadcasting services;
§ Ethnic minority cultural services;
§ Digital cultural services;
§ Access to cultural heritage sites;
§ Open public stadiums and gymnasiums;
§ National fitness activities.
8. Basic public services for people with disabilities
§ Living allowances for persons with disabilities who are in need;
§ Nursing care subsidies for persons with severe disabilities;
§ Subsistence assistance for unemployed persons with severe disabilities;
§ Subsidies for basic assistive devices for persons with disabilities living in poverty;
§ Subsidies for accessibility renovations for poor families of persons with disabilities;
§ Insurance benefits and assistance for individual insurance contributions to
Chapter 62 Give High Priority to Employment
We will implement a more proactive employment policy, create more job opportunities, work to solve problems of structural unemployment, and encourage business startups that create employment, so as to ensure relatively full and high quality employment.
We will give greater prominence to the realization of full employment and set this as a priority goal for economic and social development. We will ensure policies are targeted, increase labor force participation, and achieve stability and expansion in urban employment. We will implement initiatives for promoting the employment of college graduates and for guiding them in starting their own businesses, build platforms for innovation and business startups, and improve policy incentives to encourage college graduates to start up their own businesses and work at the community level. We will support surplus rural labor in seeking nonagricultural work and migrant workers in returning to their hometowns to startup businesses. We will support flexible employment and new forms of employment to make it easier for people to seek employment on their own. We will see that demobilized military personnel are settled into new jobs. We will strengthen employment assistance, conduct real-name dynamic management over people facing difficulty in obtaining employment and offer assistance based on the type of situation, and ensure that “zero employment” families get the necessary help. We will provide more support for reemployment. We will keep improving working conditions, regulate labor employment systems, and ensure that paid vacation systems are implemented. We will prohibit all forms of employment discrimination. We will standardize services offered by employment agencies. We will
improve coordination mechanisms for labor relations, strengthen labor protection inspection and dispute mediation and arbitration, protect the legitimate rights and interests of employees, protect the rights and interests of workers engaged in informal employment, and comprehensively address the problem of wage arrears for migrant workers, thereby facilitating harmonious labor relations.
Public Services for Employment and Business Startups
We will improve service systems for employment and business startups, and put in place a system for life-long vocational skills training. We will implement an initiative to provide free vocational training to children from poor families, junior and senior secondary school graduates who have not moved on to the next level of education, migrant workers, the unemployed, workers reemployed in other fields, former military personnel, and persons with disabilities. We will improve policies for evaluating professional titles and certifying technical skill grades for highly-skilled personnel. We will improve the statistics system for measuring employment and unemployment, improve unemployment monitoring and early warning mechanisms, release data on surveyed unemployment rates in urban areas, and strengthen monitoring of and responses to large-scale unemployment in particular regions and sectors. We will further promote the use of information technology in the provision of public services for employment and business startups, and promote openness and sharing of all types of employment information.
§ Make education on starting new businesses more widespread and strengthen entrepreneurship training;
§ Implement a plan for college graduates to gain experience through community- level work.
3. Migrant worker vocational skills training
§ Through targeted training programs and training for specific job and business demands, provide employment skills training for rural junior and senior secondary school graduates who have not moved on to the next level of education as well as other new generation migrant worker groups;
§ Provide entrepreneurship training for migrant workers who wish to start their own businesses;
§ Work to see that the number of training opportunities enjoyed by migrant workers reaches 40 million.
4. Vocational training for groups with special employment needs
§ Strengthen vocational skills training and entrepreneurship training for children of families with financial difficulties, older unemployed persons, workers reemployed in other fields, former military personnel, and workers with disabilities;
§ Provide training subsidies in accordance with regulations;
§ Offer living allowances to people from rural families with financial difficulties and from urban families receiving subsistence allowances who are engaged in apprenticeships.
5. Public services for employment and business startups
§ Improve public service facilities for employment and business startups;
§ Support the establishment of demonstration areas for business startup that have been established by people returning to their hometowns;
§ Establish regional public training centers;
§ Ensure service facilities for employment and business startups are established in all counties;
§ Accelerate data sharing among different departments;
§ Improve the basic public service system for personnel files on the floating population.
Chapter 63 Bridge the Income Gap
We must strike the right balance between fairness and efficiency, ensure that personal income grows in step with economic growth and that wages increase in step with increases in labor productivity, and continuously work to grow personal incomes. We will improve primary income distribution, intensify efforts to regulate income redistribution, adjust and optimize the pattern of national income distribution, and work to bridge income gaps throughout the whole of society.
Primary Distribution Systems
We will improve the mechanisms allowing the market to evaluate factor contribution and base distribution on contribution. We will establish sound mechanisms for determining wage levels, ensuring regular pay increases, and guaranteeing payment; implement a system for collective wage bargaining within companies; and improve the mechanism for increasing minimum wages. We will improve salary systems for highly skilled personnel and increase the wages of technical workers. We will make pay systems for government offices and public institutions better adapted to the specific characteristics of these organizations. We will strengthen differentiated regulation over salary distribution in SOEs. We will give emphasis to the incentive role of income distribution policies and expand channels through which knowledge, technology, and management factors can take part in income distribution. Personal property income will be increased through a variety of means.
Section 2 Redistribution Regulating Mechanisms
We will implement policies aimed at bridging income gaps, work to secure a significant increase in the earnings of low-income earners, and increase the proportion of middle-income earners. We will accelerate the establishment of a personal income tax system based on both adjusted gross income and specific types of income. We will bring certain luxury consumer items and high-expenditure activities under the scope of excise tax. We will improve tax policies which encourage giving back to society and helping to alleviate poverty. We will improve dynamic social security mechanisms aimed specifically at groups in difficult circumstances to ensure their basic needs are met. We will increase budgetary allocations for improving people’s wellbeing, ensure that more of the earnings from the transfer of public resources go toward improving wellbeing, and gradually raise the proportion of revenue from state capital that is turned over to public finance.
Section 3 Standardization of Income Distribution
We will protect legitimate income and regulate invisible income. We will prevent the use of non-market means to earn income, such as the abuse of power and administrative monopolies, and clamp down on all methods for illegal gains. We will strictly regulate non-salary income and non-monetary benefits. We will fully put in place non-cash payment systems, establish a sound system of information on the income and property of natural persons, and improve income statistics, surveying, and monitoring systems.
Chapter 64 Carry Out Social Security Reform
We will continue to strive toward achieving complete coverage and ensure that benefit levels are appropriate, rights and obligations are clearly delineated, and the system operates in an efficient manner. We will steadily raise the level and quality of the overall management of social security accounts and work to make the social security system more equitable and sustainable.
Section 1 Social Insurance
We will ensure that the social safety net covers essentially all people entitled by law. We will ensure actuarial balance of the social security system, improve funding mechanisms, and clearly define the social security responsibilities of government, enterprises, and individuals. We will reduce insurance premiums as appropriate. We will improve the basic old-age insurance system for urban workers which is based on social pooling and individual accounts, and we will establish a multilevel old-age insurance system that includes annuities for employees of enterprises and public
institutions as well as commercial old-age insurance in order to continuously expand the coverage of this system. We will bring the social pooling account of workers’ basic old- age insurance under national unified management. We will improve the individual account system for workers’ old-age insurance as well as incentive and restraint mechanisms related to individual insurance contributions, and establish a mechanism for making appropriate adjustments to basic pensions. We will launch pension schemes that allow for deferred payment of individual income tax. We will make better use of the role of unemployment insurance and workers’ compensation, increase the flexibility with which their premiums are determined, and improve and adjust the scope of their applicability. We will establish a mechanism to allow social security accounts to be transferred with greater ease. We will appropriate a portion of state capital to replenish social security funds, expand channels for the investment of social insurance funds, and strengthen risk management in order to ensure increasing rates of returns on investments. We will work to see a significant increase in the participation of groups such as those with flexible employment and migrant workers in insurance schemes. We will strengthen the development of public service facilities and information platforms for social insurance. We will implement an initiative to promote the use of social security cards and work to see the proportion of card holders reach 90% of total social insurance participants.
Section 2 Social Assistance
We will coordinate the development of social assistance systems in urban and rural areas, improve the subsistence allowance program, strengthen policy integration, promote program integration, and ensure that the basic needs of groups with difficulties are met. We will strengthen cohesion between social assistance systems and other social security systems as well as between special assistance programs and subsistence allowance programs. We will build an integrated structure for social assistance-related work, enrich social assistance services, raise standards of assistance as appropriate, and ensure that issues related to any of the diverse range of social assistance services can be dealt with at one place through the concerted efforts of relevant departments. We will establish a sound mechanism for verifying the financial situation of families receiving social assistance, and work to ensure that wherever possible, entitled families are listed for the receipt of assistance while families that do not qualify for entitlement are
removed from the list. We will launch comprehensive trials of providing assistance to those experiencing exceptional difficulties, and we will improve community-level service facilities for offering assistance to beggars and the homeless.
Social Welfare and Charity
We will improve the social welfare system with a focus on care and assistance for the elderly, persons with disabilities, minors, and those in financial difficulty. We will establish policies to support at-home elderly care and promote family-based elderly and child care. We will ensure work related to the welfare and protection of children in need is carried out well. We will improve the child adoption system. We will strengthen resettlement work for entitled groups. We will develop basic public-interest funeral services, and support the development of public funeral parlors, public- interest facilities for storing ashes, and cemeteries. We will accelerate the reform of public welfare institutions, improve welfare facilities, optimize welfare distribution, and promote welfare resource sharing. We will give strong support to the development of professional social work and charity. We will improve mechanisms for regular social donations. We will mobilize nongovernmental actors to provide social relief, mutual aid, and volunteer services.
Chapter 65 Respond to Population Aging
We will respond to population aging, strengthen top-level design, and establish a system for addressing population aging that is underpinned by population strategy, family planning policy, employment systems, elderly care services, the social security system, health programs, training systems, environmental support, and social participation.
Balanced Population Development
We will uphold the basic state policy on family planning and allow all couples to have two children. We will reform and improve the management of family planning services and improve birth registration service systems. We will provide better public services related to reproductive health and maternal, newborn, and child health as well as to childcare and early childhood education. We will make sure that relevant economic and social policies are effectively adapted to the policy of allowing all couples to have two children. We will improve the systems of awards, assistance, and special help to rural households who have followed the family planning policy, and give more care and help to households who have lost their only child. We will ensure that services are available throughout the entire process of having and raising children. We will ensure importance is given to family development. We will adopt a comprehensive approach to addressing the problem of the skewed birth gender ratio. The national population will be around 1.42 billion.
We will improve the strategy on population development and establish sound mechanisms for integrated decision-making on population and development. We will take a comprehensive approach to addressing the decline of the working population and implement policies to gradually increase the retirement age. We will strengthen human resource development among older people and work to raise the employability of older members of the workforce. We will launch population impact assessments for major economic and social policies and improve dynamic population monitoring mechanisms.
Better Elderly Care Services
We will establish a multilevel elderly care service system based on at- home care, supported by communities, and supplemented by elderly care institutions. We will make coordinated plans for building public-interest elderly service facilities and support the building of nursing homes and community day-care centers for disabled elderly persons. We will establish systems for providing subsidies for very elderly persons and senior citizens suffering from loss of physical and/or mental capacity, who are experiencing financial difficulties. We will strengthen research on aging science. We will put in place initiatives for training elderly care personnel and strengthen the contingent
of elderly care professionals and management personnel. We will promote integration between health care and elderly care services. We will improve welfare and charity systems to better meet the demands of population aging. We will help foster a comfortable living environment for the elderly. We will open up the entire elderly services market, and through means such as service procurement and equity cooperation, we will support all types of market participants in providing more elderly care products and services. We will strengthen protection of the rights and interests of the elderly and promote the social customs of respecting, caring for, and helping the elderly.
Chapter 66 Safeguard the Basic Rights and Interests of Women, Minors, and Persons with Disabilities
We will uphold the fundamental state policy of gender equality and continue to put children first. We will earnestly protect the rights and interests of women, minors, and persons with disabilities, and ensure that they can fairly participate in and share more of the results of development.
All-Around Women’s Development
We will implement the Plan for Women’s Development in China (2011–2020). We will ensure that women enjoy equal rights and opportunities with respect to education, employment, marital property, and participation in social affairs; we will guarantee the land-related rights of women in rural areas, and increase the level of women’s participation in policy making and management. We will strengthen work such as poverty alleviation, labor protection, health care, maternity care, social welfare, and legal aid for women. We will crack down on criminal activities such as the trafficking of women and children and violence against women. We will work to eliminate discrimination and bias against women and improve the environment for women’s development.
Healthy Development of Minors
We will implement a plan on children’s development. We will strengthen legal safeguards and social responsibility over the rights to subsistence, development, protection, and participation of minors. We will improve the guardianship system for minors, build a social network for the care of minors, and improve community protection and service systems for minors. We will eliminate child labor. We will draw up and implement a plan for youth development and foster a sound environment for the growth and development of young people. We will promote coordination and interaction between school education, family education, and social education and help young people to be studious, virtuous, upright, and able to tell right from wrong so as to inspire energy and creativity in them. We will strengthen all- round efforts to ensure order and safety in schools and their surrounding areas and crack down on illegal criminal activities that endanger the physical and mental health of minors. We will improve psychological counseling for minors. We will take effective measures to prevent juvenile delinquency. We will encourage young people to participate more in volunteer services and public-interest activities.
Services for People with Disabilities
We will support the development of programs for persons with disabilities, establish and improve basic welfare systems for them, and see that their basic needs are met. We will improve the reimbursement system for the medical expenses of persons with severe disabilities. We will give high priority to persons with disabilities in the provision of basic housing. We will improve policies for supporting the employment and business startup activities of persons with disabilities, and improve the system for public organizations to offer them employment. We will improve rehabilitation and care facilities for persons with disabilities and encourage nongovernmental entities to provide services for them. We will improve the construction and maintenance of accessibility facilities for persons with disabilities. We will implement key rehabilitation programs such as rehabilitation programs for children six years of age or younger who
have disabilities and provision programs for basic assistive devices for persons with disabilities living in poverty. We will establish rehabilitation universities to cultivate rehabilitation health professionals.
Social Care Action Plan
1. Children’s healthy development
§ Provide care, psychological counseling, and other services for children in need;
§ Provide special care for left-behind children in rural areas;
§ Improve facilities for child welfare and the protection of minors;
§ Work to see Home for Children centers cover at least 90% of urban and rural communities;
§ Help the children of poor rural families to receive preschool education.
2. Young people’s development
§ Expand sports activities for young people and ensure that at least 95% of our youth can meet physical standards;
§ Strengthen the development of youth centers and other organizations serving the needs of youth development;
§ Strengthen the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS in schools.
3. Help and support for persons with disabilities
§ Fully implement the program for providing living allowances for persons with disabilities who are in need and the program for granting nursing care subsidies to persons with severe disabilities;
§ Ensure localities where conditions permit offer subsidies for the allocation of basic assistive devices for people with disabilities living in poverty and for accessibility renovations for poor households which have one or more family members with disabilities;
§ Support day-care institutions and professional care service institutions in providing nursing services for persons with disabilities;
§ Implement key rehabilitation programs and offer basic rehabilitation services to people with disabilities living in poverty and to persons with severe disabilities.
4. Respect and care for the elderly
§ Improve elderly care facilities by building nursing homes for the elderly, helping provide combined medical and care services, developing better community day- care centers, and providing rehabilitation equipment;
§ Develop community information platforms for at-home elderly care services, promote the construction of smart elderly care communities, promote the embedding of long-term care systems into communities, and move forward on seeing
SOCIALIST CULTURAL AND ETHICAL PROGRESS
Remaining committed to the goal of developing an advanced socialist culture, maintaining a people-centered work ethic, and putting social benefits first while also stressing economic benefits, we will accelerate reform and development in the cultural sector, promote coordinated material and cultural-ethical progress, and develop a strong socialist culture in China.
Chapter 67 Strengthen Civic Development
Guided by core socialist values, we will strengthen work to improve ethical and moral standards and promote integrity throughout society, advocate traditional Chinese virtues alongside modern virtues, and promote the spirit of science and humanity to advance civic development and civility throughout society.
Core Socialist Values
We will use the Chinese Dream and core socialist values to build consensus, bring together different forces, and strengthen national identity, rule of law awareness, moral consciousness, a sense of social responsibility, and ecological awareness nationwide. We will incorporate the core socialist values into all areas of economic and social development and all aspects of social life by strengthening education about ideals
and convictions and working harder to study and publicize the theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Through education, guidance, publicity, culture, practice, and institutions, we will work to see that our people internalize and firmly believe in the core socialist values and purposefully make them the basis for their actions, enhancing confidence in the path, theories, and system of socialism with Chinese characteristics throughout society. We will strengthen communication and cultural work at the community level. We will advance civic morality and foster a sense of moral judgment and moral responsibility.
Philosophy and the Social Sciences
We will work for innovation in philosophy and the social sciences and develop the systems for promoting such innovation. We will strengthen platforms for theoretical work as well as the development of academic disciplines, and make further progress in implementing the Marxist Theory Research and Development Project. We will step up efforts to research and explain new concepts, ideas, and strategies for the governance of the country. We will develop the discipline of Chinese socialist political economy. We will prioritize efforts to build 50 to 100 top national think tanks.
Section 3 Cultural Heritage
We will establish systems for carrying on the fine cultural traditions of China and ensure that traditional culture is creatively adapted and developed. We will carry out extensive activities to popularize fine traditional culture and see its incorporation into national education, and we will see that the revolutionary culture established since the May 4th Movement is carried on. We will channel great energy into advocating and standardizing the usage of the standard Chinese language. We will strengthen the protection and utilization of sites and items of cultural significance, putting an end to destructive development and improper business operations. We will step up the protection and carrying on of intangible cultural heritage, revitalize traditional
craftsmanship, and promote and develop traditional Chinese opera. We will develop ethnic and folk culture and support folk culture organizations.
Popular Initiatives to Promote Cultural and Ethical Progress
We will launch extensive popular initiatives to increase civility in cities, villages, organizations, households, and schools and promote the spirit of Lei Feng through volunteer service activities. We will give impetus to the educative, cultural, and improving roles of important traditional festivals, major ceremonial events, and public service advertisements. We will popularize scientific knowledge and encourage everyone to get reading, with the aim of increasing the proportion of citizens with scientific literacy to over 10%. We will work to see more public-interest performances being held and more fine arts activities being made available to the general public. We will foster a positive ethical culture at home, in the countryside, at school, and in business to bring about an atmosphere of modern ethical and social progress.
Chapter 68 Provide More Cultural Products and Services
We will strengthen the development of both cultural initiatives and the culture industry by implementing projects to develop culture and help people emerge as eminent cultural figures so as to give an extra touch of color and vitality to people’s cultural lives.
Section 1 Socialist Literature and Art
We will support the creation of outstanding cultural works so that a greater number of masterly works will be produced to articulate contemporary Chinese values,
the spirit of Chinese culture, and the aesthetic tastes of the Chinese people. We will make more effective use of government investment and all types of funds, encourage innovative content and forms, support the development of theater troupes, and strengthen the development of performance and rehearsal venues. We will develop literature and art theory and critique as well as support the development of artists and writers that demonstrate moral and political integrity and strong artistic talent.
The Modern Public Cultural Service System
We will move forward with setting standards for basic public cultural services and ensuring equitable access. We will improve networks of public cultural facilities and strengthen capabilities to provide public cultural services at the community level. We will increase support for cultural development in old revolutionary bases, areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities, border areas, and poor areas. We will accelerate the digitization of cultural practices and texts. We will work to see cultural products and public-interest services better fit the cultural needs of the general public. We will encourage nongovernmental actors to participate in the provision of public cultural services. We will continue making efforts to see public cultural facilities are open to the public free of charge. We will promote the flourishing of literature, art, the press, publishing, radio, television, film, and sports. We will better protect the cultural rights and interests of the elderly, minors, migrant workers, people with disabilities, and other groups.
Modern Cultural Industries
We will accelerate the development of emerging industries such as online audio and video, mobile multimedia, digital publishing, animation, comics, and games, in addition to transforming and upgrading traditional industries such as publishing, film and television production, and arts and crafts. We will advance the development of new forms of business in the cultural sector, develop creative and cultural industries, and
integrate the development of cultural industries and the science, technology, information, tourism, sports, and financial industries. We will encourage mergers and restructuring of cultural enterprises and support the development of micro, small, and medium cultural businesses. We will step up the pace of nationwide cable TV network integration as well as the application of smart technologies. We will expand and guide cultural consumption.
Section 4 Modern Media Systems
We will strengthen the development of the mainstream media to improve its guidance on public communication and strengthen its credibility, influence, and communicative effectiveness. Based on advanced technology and content enrichment, we will work for in-depth integration between traditional and emerging media in terms of content, channels, platforms, operations, and management while also establishing a new-style media communications system based on cooperation between content creators, media platforms, and end-user hardware providers, so as to create new forms of mainstream media and new mediums for communication. We will optimize the structure of the media and regulate communication.
Section 5 Cyber Culture
We will work to see that online content is improved, enrich cyber culture, encourage the creation of excellent original works and develop online literature and art and a positive cyber culture. We will create new methods of online communication to better fit the nature of online media and improve analysis and guidance capabilities with respect to online public opinion. We will differentiate management based on the type of online operator and ensure online operators strengthen their sense of social responsibility. We will promote the civilized running of websites and civilized surfing, promote proper online behavior among young people, advocate online public-benefit activities, and clean up the online environment.
Structural Reform of the Cultural Sector
We will improve the cultural management system which, under the leadership of Party committees, is comprised of regulation by the government, industry self- governance, public oversight, and the law-based operation of cultural enterprises and public institutions. We will deepen reform of public-interest cultural institutions. We will encourage cultural enterprises to build a modern corporate system appropriate for the sector. We will improve systems for managing state-owned assets in the cultural sector. We will lower the threshold for nongovernmental investors to participate in the cultural industry and encourage the development of non- public cultural enterprises. We will conduct trials of special right shares in news, publishing, and media enterprises. We will improve the modern cultural market system and implement and improve economic policies in the cultural sector. We will expand efforts to combat pornography and illegal publications, strengthen market oversight, and become better able to carry out coordinated law enforcement.
Chapter 69 Further Open Up the Cultural Sector
In helping Chinese culture reach out to the world, we will carry out more cultural exchanges, create new ways of communicating with international audiences, of conducting international cultural exchanges, and of carrying out cultural trade with foreign partners, and on the basis of exchanges and mutual learning, share the unique appeal of Chinese culture.
Opportunities for Cultural Exchanges and Cooperation
We will promote both governmental and nongovernmental exchanges to increase mutual cultural trust as well as cultural exchanges. We will encourage international exchanges in Chinese studies. We will improve the operating mechanisms used by overseas Chinese cultural centers. We will support overseas Chinese in engaging in China-foreign cultural exchanges. We will strive to explore the international cultural market, encouraging cultural enterprises to engage in overseas investment and cooperation and exporting cultural products and services. We will work to adopt outstanding foreign cultural achievements and advanced managerial concepts in the cultural sector, and encourage overseas-invested enterprises to conduct science and technology research and development as well as service outsourcing in the cultural sector in China. We will ensure national cultural safety.
Ability to Communicate with International Audiences
We will expand our networks for overseas communication and use a greater variety of channels and methods for such communication. We will establish flagship media, move forward with cooperative communication, strengthen efforts on joint ventures and cooperation with large international media groups, and ensure information networks and facilities work to facilitate cultural communication. We will develop a system of discourse based on Chinese cultural characteristics that fits with both international practice as well as the unique characteristics of individual countries, and work to increase the accessibility of China’s cultural communication through the use of more vibrant and diverse methods of expression.
works by organizing the implementation of the Award for Cultural Works on Five Areas, the National Stage Art Works Creation Program, the National Publishing Project, the National Film and Television Creation Program, the China Program for the Creation of Contemporary Literary and Artistic Works, the Outstanding Screenplay Support Project, and the National Project for Developing and Collecting Fine Art.
3. Public cultural facilities
§ Improve the conditions of prefecture- and county-level public cultural centers,
libraries, and museums;
§ Improve the functions of multipurpose cultural centers in villages and ensure they are used more efficiently;
§ See that all counties in poor areas are equipped with vehicle-based mobile cultural centers;
§ Increase the pace of efforts to extend radio and television services to all households;
§ Increase coverage of digital wireless access to national radio and television programming;
§ Give high priority to increasing radio and television coverage in border areas and areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities and to strengthening relevant dubbing capabilities;
§ Improve the emergency broadcasting system;
§ Launch the Dongfeng program to develop news and publishing in ethnic minority areas as well as programs to produce ethnic minority films;
§ Move forward with the development of major national-level cultural facilities including the National Art Museum of China, the China National Arts and Crafts Museum, the Forbidden City Museum improvement project, and the National Documents Strategic Repository;
§ Improve archive facilities.
4. Traditional culture and natural heritage
§ Strengthen the protection and utilization of heritage resources such as major national cultural and natural heritage sites; major nationally protected cultural and historical sites; famous historical and cultural cities, towns and villages; and national-level intangible cultural heritage;
§ Build national cultural parks and improve facilities for their protection and utilization;
§ Carry out the national memory project;
§ Move forward with the development of the Qufu Traditional Cultural Heritage Preservation and Development Exemplary Area in Shandong, as well as the Chinese Culture Inheritance and Innovation Zone in Gansu;
§ Strengthen archaeological work;
§ Advance the protection of important cultural remains through projects such as the Erlitou Xia Dynasty Ruins Museum and the Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln Heritage Site.
5. Traditional Chinese opera and craftsmanship
§ Conduct a survey on the varieties of traditional Chinese opera;
§ Subsidize efforts to digitize and record traditional opera;
§ Support opportunities for masters of Peking opera, Kunqu opera, and other local operas to pass on their knowledge and skills;
§ Build regional performance art centers;
§ Strengthen the cultivation of professional artists of traditional opera;
§ Formulate and implement a revitalization plan for traditional craftsmanship;
§ Support traditional craftsmanship projects;
§ Encourage the creation of ethnic brand names.
6. Classical Chinese literature
§ Protect ancient classical Chinese texts;
§ Basically complete the nationwide survey of ancient classical texts;
§ Encourage efforts to preserve the original form of or repair ancient classical texts;
§ Publish 300 kinds of important texts through national projects;
§ Establish a national database for ancient texts;
§ Support efforts to reorganize and repair classical religious books, such as the Continued Taoist Canon and Tripitaka;
§ Increase support for the compilation of historical works and chorography;
§ Protect Chinese documents originating from the Republic of China era (1912– 1949);
§ Systematically organize and publish major classical texts and documents written since the beginning of recent modern times.
7. Communication capabilities
§ Strengthen key news and media outlets;
§ Create a convergence platform that integrates traditional and new media;
§ See the content of major websites is enriched;
§ Develop new media for communicating government affairs;
§ Accelerate efforts to digitize cultural resources;
§ Promote online availability of Chinese culture;
§ Coordinate resources for communication with international audiences to expand high-end, localized, and border coverage;
§ Support the cultivation of those talented in telling stories of China.
8. A nation of readers
§ Hold a series of activities around the theme of “Reading in China”;
§ While making full use of existing facilities, coordinate the building of community reading centers, rural digital libraries, public digital reading terminals, and other such facilities;
§ Provide books, newspapers, and periodicals for children;
§ Provide books for city residents;
§ Support the publication of literature in braille;
BETTER AND MORE INNOVATIVE SOCIAL GOVERNANCE
We will strengthen efforts to develop the basic institutions for social governance, see that everyone contributes to and benefits from social governance, and work to increase social governance capabilities and effectiveness in order to promote social vitality, stability, and harmony.
Chapter 70 Improve the Social Governance System
We will improve the social governance system to help see that Party committees play a leadership role, government plays a guiding role, social organizations play a cooperative role, the general public participates, and the rule of law acts as a guarantee, thereby achieving positive interaction between governmental governance and social regulation and resident self-governance.
Section 1 Government Governance
We will develop a new concept of government governance, strengthening rule of law awareness and service mentality, and ensuring that service is implicit in management and that services facilitate management. We will work to improve methods of government governance, make full use of modern science and technology to improve social governance methods, work to make social governance more refined, and step up efforts to address problems at the source, exercise dynamic management, respond to
emergencies, and address root causes as well as symptoms. We will improve the system for the release of government information. We will ensure that local governments improve their ability to provide services. We will establish a national database of basic population information and strengthen institutional development with respect to population management, real- name registration, credit rating systems, and crisis early warning and intervention. We will work to improve appraisal and accountability mechanisms for government social governance.
Section 2 Community Services
We will work to improve the community governance system in both urban and rural areas, delineate according to law the powers and responsibilities of community- level governments and community organizations, and establish mechanisms for coordinated action between communities, social organizations, and social workers. We will improve management platforms for integrated community services in both urban and rural areas, promote interconnectedness between public services, convenience services, and volunteer services, and work to provide one-stop services. We will make sure that integrated community service facilities are established in all urban communities and will make progress in developing such facilities in rural areas. We will work to improve the professional competence of community workers. We will work to see the proportion of registered volunteers reach 13% of residents.
Role of Social Organizations
We will improve social organization management and establish a modern social organization system in which the functions of government are clearly separated from those of social organizations, powers and responsibilities are clearly defined, and self- governance is exercised on the basis of law. We will reform the registration system, operating a system of registration by type. We will support the development of social organizations belonging to the following categories: industry associations and chambers
of commerce, science and technology institutions, charities and public- interest organizations, and community service organizations. We will move faster to uncouple industry associations and chambers of commerce from government bodies, and work to improve corporate governance. We will encourage public institutions that meet certain conditions to become social organizations, and help to see that social organizations take over functions transferred from the government. We will strengthen comprehensive oversight, redouble our efforts to promote integrity, and see that self- regulation, external-regulation, and industry-wide regulation play a better role.
We will encourage the public to draw on social ethics, professional ethics, family virtues, personal morality, and other moral and ethical codes to improve themselves and practice self-discipline, to willingly perform their legal obligations, social responsibilities, and family duties, and to conscientiously observe and safeguard social order. We will strengthen the development of social norms such as industry standards, social organization charters, citizens’ codes of conduct, and community conventions, and give full impetus to the positive role that social norms play in coordinating social relations and governing social behavior.
Section 5 Public Participation
We will, in accordance with the law, safeguard residents’ rights to be informed, to participate, to make decisions, and to conduct oversight, and improve institutional channels for public participation in governance. For major decisions related to key public interests, we will broadly solicit comments and suggestions from the public through residents meetings, discussions and deliberations, and democratic hearings. We will strengthen public oversight and evaluation by improving democratic evaluations and the transparency of village and community affairs.
Mechanisms for Safeguarding Rights and Interests and Resolving Disputes
We will improve mechanisms for interest expression and coordination and guide people in exercising their rights, expressing their concerns, and resolving disputes in accordance with the law. We will refine legally stipulated mechanisms for pursuing claims such as administrative review, arbitration, and litigation, and ensure that deputies to people’s congresses, members of Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference committees, people’s organizations, and social organizations perform the function of expressing the concerns of the people. We will ensure that all complaints filed by letter or in person are addressed in a transparent manner, hold officials responsible for promptly resolving disputes where they have taken place, and improve the system for concluding, in accordance with the law, litigation-related complaints filed by letter or in person. We will ensure that potential risks which major policy decisions may pose to social stability are fully assessed and work to improve the cohesion and complementarity between dispute resolution mechanisms such as mediation, arbitration, administrative adjudication, administrative review, and litigation. We will improve interest protection mechanisms to ensure that the rights and interests of the public are handled fairly and safeguarded effectively. We will also work to provide better psychological services and strengthen counseling and treatment for groups with special needs.
Chapter 71 Improve the Social Credibility System
With the aim of increasing integrity in all areas of society, we will work faster to develop credibility systems relating to key areas such as government administrative integrity, commercial and business integrity, social integrity, and judicial credibility, promote credit information sharing, and improve incentive and penalty mechanisms.
Credit Information Management
We will implement a unified system of credit rating codes nationwide. We will formulate national standards for collecting and managing credit information. We will ensure, in accordance with the law, that management over the collection, sharing, usage, and release of credit information is based on the type of information, and strengthen the protection of credit information involving personal privacy or business secrets. We will move faster to see the development of legislation regarding credit.
Contribution to and Sharing of Credit Information
We will put in place a system for the release and recording of credit- related information and move faster to improve credit reporting for all types of market entities and members of society. We will strengthen the integration of departmental, industrial, and local credit information, establish a mechanism for collecting enterprise credit information, improve the national platform for sharing credit information, and develop a national system for releasing enterprise credit information. We will promote society- wide release and sharing of credit information resources in accordance with the law.
Mechanisms to Incentivize Good Faith and Penalize Lack of Credibility
We will establish a mechanism for encouraging and rewarding those who act in good faith. In the course of market regulation and public service provision, we will implement incentivizing policies such as increasing the convenience of services for those who maintain good credit. We will improve joint response and joint penalty mechanisms involving multiple departments, regions, and industries, strengthen the law-based release and oversight of enterprise credit, and establish in every industry a blacklist of enterprises which lack credibility and a mechanism for having them exit the market.
Credit Services Market
We will establish a multilevel system of credit service organizations which allows complementarity between public and social credit service institutions as well as between basic and value-added credit information services. We will promote the development, innovation, and broad application of credit service products. We will support credit investigation and credit rating agencies to develop in line with standards, and help improve their service quality and international competitiveness. We will improve regulation over credit investigation and markets for credit services.
Chapter 72 Improve Public Security Systems
We will keep firmly in mind the need to pursue safe development, give primacy to the interests of the people, strengthen awareness of security throughout society, improve public security systems, and put in place a comprehensive multidimensional public security net to ensure that people can live and work in peace and contentment, that social stability and order prevail, and that the country achieves lasting peace on our way toward building a Peaceful China.
Section 1 Workplace Safety
We will establish a comprehensive governance system for workplace safety featuring complete coverage in term s of responsibility, all- encompassing management, and oversight over the entire production process, and we will create a permanent workplace safety mechanism. We will improve and implement responsibility and assessment mechanisms as well as management systems for workplace safety, ensuring that both Party committees and governments assume responsibility, officials perform their duties while also taking responsibility for workplace safety, and those who fail to uphold safety standards are held accountable, and we will ensure enterprises assume responsibility for workplace safety. We will work more quickly to formulate and revise workplace safety laws, regulations, and standards. We will reform the safety evaluation system; improve multi-party mechanisms for risk control, safety hazard identification and correction, and early warning and emergency response; step up regulation and law enforcement efforts over workplace safety and occupational health; and work to curb the frequent occurrence of major and serious workplace accidents. We will strengthen systems for identifying, preventing, and dealing with safety hazards, promote the use of information technology in workplace safety regulation, increase emergency rescue capabilities, and build capacity in respect to workplace safety inspection and oversight. We will implement initiatives to relocate hazardous chemical plants and warehouses to ensure safe and eco-friendly production and storage of chemicals. We will strengthen basic capabilities for workplace safety such as networks for preventing and managing traffic accidents and step up efforts to monitor and protect the safety of important infrastructure such as telecommunications, power grids, roads, bridges, water supply facilities, and pipelines for oil and gas transmission. We will work to make society as a whole more safety conscious. We will work to curb the occurrence of major and serious accidents in the workplace in order to cut the mortality rate for fatal workplace accidents per unit of GDP by 30%.
Disaster Prevention, Mitigation, and Response
In line with the understanding that prevention should play the predominant role and disaster prevention, mitigation, and relief efforts should be integrated, we will work to strengthen comprehensive prevention capabilities with respect to floods, droughts, and earthquakes as well as other meteorological, geological, and marine disasters. We will refine disaster prevention, mitigation, and response systems, improving disaster investigation, assessment, monitoring, early warning, prevention, and emergency response systems. We will construct more emergency shelters in urban areas. We will improve the system for stockpiling relief supplies and improve ability to use resources in a more coordinated way. We will accelerate the establishment of a catastrophe insurance system. We will formulate policies on compensation for nongovernmental emergency relief services, compensation for requisitioned materials and equipment, and personal safety insurance and aid or compensation in the event of injury or loss of life for relief workers. We will carry out extensive drills as well as publicity and educational campaigns for disaster prevention and mitigation.
Innovations in Crime Prevention and Control Systems
We will work to improve the institutions and mechanisms for the comprehensive maintenance of law and order, accelerate the establishment of a multidimensional IT- based system for crime prevention and control, and put in place platforms for integrated, community-level management and services. We will step up efforts to apply information technology in community-level police work, achieve concrete results in the field, ensure procedure-based law enforcement, and strengthen the professional organization of the police force. We will build crime prevention and control networks based on public efforts as well as cooperation between the public and police, and accelerate the development of online systems for comprehensive crime prevention and control. We will initiate joint law and order efforts and problem identification and resolution in key locations, sectors, and regions. We will strengthen basic capabilities for cracking down on crime, fighting against drugs, and preventing and handling cults.
Section 4 Emergency Response Systems
We will complete the building of an emergency response system that corresponds with public security risks, covers the entire process of emergency management, and involves public participation. We will strengthen the development of basic emergency response capabilities, improve risk management systems for major sources of hazards and key infrastructure, strengthen capabilities with respect to sending out emergency early warnings and responding to emergencies, and improve community- level emergency management. We will strengthen counter-terrorism capabilities in large and medium cities. We will strengthen core capabilities with respect to hazardous chemical disposal, marine oil spills, marine rescue and recovery, nuclear accident response, and emergency medical relief, and strengthen coordination on ensuring emergency resources. We will establish a compensation system for emergency requisition and expropriation, improve the management of emergency volunteers, and work to improve people’s ability to help themselves and others during emergencies. We will strengthen China’s capabilities to respond to overseas emergencies that affect its interests.
Chapter 73 Develop the National Security System
We will fully put into effect the integrative national security concept, implement a national security strategy, and keep working to improve our ability to ensure national security, so as to effectively safeguard Chinese national security.
Systems and Mechanisms for Safeguarding National Security
We will formulate and implement national security policies in key areas including the political, territorial, economic, social, resource-, and internet- related fields, define medium-term and long-term security objectives, policies, and measures for these areas, and work to strengthen our ability to respond to all kinds of risks and challenges. We will strengthen the development of national security science, technology, and equipment, establish a sound national security monitoring and early-warning system, tighten integration between monitoring and early-warning systems in different areas to increase efficiency, and improve security information gathering, analysis, and processing capabilities. We will establish a warning system for external risks based on risk classification and level. We will strengthen monitoring and assessment over major security risks and formulate a national emergency plan for handling major risks to national security. We will improve national security review systems and mechanisms. We will conduct security risk assessments in major areas and for reform measures, projects, programs, and policies. We will put in place a coordination mechanism for safeguarding national security in key areas to better organize and coordinate national security efforts.
Security of China’s Political Power and Sovereignty
We will establish a sound trans-departmental, trans-regional joint work mechanism to resolutely prevent and take severe action in accordance with the law against infiltration, subversion, and sabotage by hostile forces, violent terrorist activities, ethnic separatist activities, and religious extremist activities. We will strengthen the development of professional counter-terrorism forces. We will increase international cooperation on combating terrorism. We will strengthen anti-espionage work. We will step up our struggle against hostile forces concerning cyberspace sovereignty, strengthen guidance on online public discourse, and work to prevent hostile and terrorist forces from carrying out infiltration and sabotage activities in cyberspace. We will strengthen the use of technology in border protection. We will work hard to ensure ideological work is carried out properly in order to safeguard China’s ideological security.
Section 3 Economic Security Risks
Upholding the principle that we must be aware of our bottom line and put prevention first, we will safeguard national economic security in areas such as strategic resources, key industries, finance and banking, and cross-border capital flow. We will strengthen dynamic monitoring and analysis of key economic indicators and formulate an emergency plan for responding to risks in major economic sectors. We will coordinate responses to fiscal and financial risks that arise as we work to address overcapacity, reduce commodity housing stock, and carry out debt deleveraging, thus working proactively to diffuse risks both in a controlled manner and at a controlled pace. We will strengthen regulation over and response to both unusual fluctuations and risk transference in the financial market and risks that come with new forms of financial business. We will improve the unified management of government debt and work to see local government financing platforms become more market-based so as to effectively
defuse the risks posed by local government debt. We will ensure that there are more options for dealing with non-performing assets in the banking sector, improve tools and emergency plans for managing liquidity risks, and crack down hard on illegal fundraising. We will be on the alert for enterprise debt risks. We will strengthen our ability to prevent and control risks in areas such as energy, mineral resources, water resources, grain, ecological conservation, environmental protection, workplace safety, and the internet. We will improve the country’s reserves of strategic goods and create a national strategic resource and energy reserve system based on a combination of reserve goods, production capacity, and production locations.
Rule of Law in National Security
We will implement the National Security Law and formulate relevant implementation regulations. We will promote legislative work in areas involving national security such as national economic security, nonproliferation, national intelligence, cybersecurity, export control, foreign agent registration, and security reviews for businesses involving foreign capital; speed up efforts to improve the system of laws relating to national security; and make full use of legal means in safeguarding national security.
SOCIALIST DEMOCRACY AND RULE OF LAW
We will ensure the unity of leadership by the Party, the position of the people as masters of the country, and law-based governance, accelerate efforts to build a socialist rule of law country, and advance socialist political progress.
Chapter 74 Develop Socialist Democracy
We will continue our commitment to and improve the system of people’s congresses, the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, the system of ethnic autonomous regions, and the system of community-level self-governance, so as to expand the systematic political participation of our citizens and give full expression to the strengths of China’s socialist political system. We will strengthen consultative democracy by establishing a well-structured and procedurally sound system of consultative democracy, continuing to improve consultation between political parties, and expanding consultation channels for organs of state power, CPPCC committees, political parties, community-level organizations, and social organizations. We will improve systems for community-level democracy, further open democratic channels, and refine mechanisms for elections, deliberations, public access to information, performance reporting, and holding officials to account at the community level. We will carry out diverse forms of community-level democratic consultation and work toward the institutionalization of community-level consultation.
Chapter 75 Build a Rule of Law China
We will ensure that the country is governed, governance is exercised, and administration is conducted in accordance with the law, and that our country, government, and society are all based on the rule of law, developing a rule of law system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and the rule of law in socialist China.
The Constitution-Centered Socialist Legal System of China
We will safeguard the sanctity and authority of the Constitution and improve our systems for enforcing the Constitution and providing oversight over its enforcement. In improving the legislative system, we will strengthen the Party’s leadership over legislative work, improve the systems and mechanisms under which legislative work is led by people’s congresses that have legislative power, improve the government legislative system, and clearly define the boundaries of legislative power. We will work
hard to legislate more effectively and democratically; ensure that people’s congresses better organize and coordinate legislative work; refine mechanisms for drafting, debating, coordinating, and deliberating on legislation; and improve channels and methods through which legislative bodies lead legislation while other sectors of society also participate in a systematic way. We will work faster to see that a complete system of laws and regulations takes shape by speeding up legislation in key areas, working at once to enact, revise, abolish, and interpret laws, and improving laws for the socialist market economy and social governance.
Rule of Law Government
We will implement, both to the letter and in spirit, the Plan for Building Rule of Law Government (2015–2020) released by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, thoroughly advance law-based administration, and ensure that power is defined, exercised, held in check, and overseen in accordance with the law and that all government activities are in line with the rule of law. We will see that government functions are fully carried out in accordance with the law, improve legislation on administrative organization and procedures, and define governmental institutions, functions, powers, procedures, and responsibilities by law. We will refine procedures for making government decisions and improve law- based decision-making mechanisms. We will deepen the structural reform of administrative law enforcement, advance coordinated law enforcement, and better coordinate administrative law enforcement with the administration of criminal justice. We will ensure that law is enforced in a strict, procedure- based, impartial, and civil manner, and narrow the scope of discretionary powers to the greatest extent possible. We will improve law enforcement assessment and evaluation systems. We will improve the auditing system and make sure that auditing-based oversight is exercised independently in accordance with the law.
Section 3 Judicial Justice
We will deepen judicial structural reform, provide better judicial protection of rights, and ensure stronger judicial oversight over authority, so as to build a more just, efficient, and authoritative socialist judiciary. We will improve the mechanism under which judicial power and responsibilities are divided among judicial bodies that both complement and place a check on each other, and refine the trial instance system, the judicial organization system, and the case jurisdiction system. We will explore the establishment of people’s courts and procuratorates with jurisdictions over multiple administrative divisions. We will strengthen occupational safeguards for judicial officers and improve systems for ensuring the law-based, independent, and impartial exercise of judicial and procuratorial powers. We will take comprehensive measures to ensure transparency in court proceedings and in procuratorial, police, and prison affairs, and strengthen judicial protection of human rights. We will tighten oversight over judicial activities and ensure that judicial bodies build more robust mechanisms for internal oversight and power constraints. We will work to see that judicial bodies improve case handling accountability systems, ensuring that those in charge of a case take due responsibility. We will improve facilities development in respect to prisons, mandatory drug treatment, community corrections, resettlement assistance for released inmates, forensic examinations, and other areas and programs.
Rule of Law Society
We will advance law-based governance at all levels and in all fields and increase the level of rule of law in social governance. We will strengthen efforts to foster a rule of law culture, advocate socialist rule of law, and strengthen the awareness of all members of society, especially public sector workers, of the need to respect, study, abide by, and apply the law, so that the rule of law permeates and takes root throughout the whole of society. We will intensify efforts to spread legal knowledge in accordance with the seventh five-year plan for increasing public knowledge of the law, incorporate education on the rule of law in the national education system, and improve the recording of citizens’ and organizations’ credit in terms of legal compliance. We will ensure legal service systems are improved by strengthening the training of lawyers and other legal professionals as well as legal service personnel, promoting the development of public legal service systems covering all citizens, and improving the legal aid and judicial assistance systems.
Chapter 76 Strengthen Party Conduct, Government Integrity, and the Fight against Corruption
The effort to strengthen Party conduct, government integrity, and the fight against corruption must be forever ongoing; we cannot afford to ease up or come to a halt. We will ensure that the Party exercises strict self-governance in all respects; that Party officials adhere to the Three Stricts and Three Honests5 and stay true to Party rules and discipline; that Party committees are held responsible for improving Party conduct and government integrity and commissions for discipline inspection carry out their oversight responsibilities; and that accountability measures are strengthened. We will implement the CPC Central Committee’s eight-point decision on improving Party and government conduct, remain steadfast in the fight against formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance, and establish a sound, permanent mechanism for improving Party and government conduct. We will take resolute measures to punish and rectify improper conduct and corruption that harm people’s interests, fight every phenomenon of corruption, and punish every corrupt official. We will also consolidate achievements made in anti-corruption campaigns, and establish effective mechanisms that deter, stop, and discourage officials from becoming corrupt. By working hard to ensure that our officials are honest, our government is clean, and political integrity is upheld, we will bring about a more favorable political environment for economic and social development.
In order to eradicate hotbeds of corruption and ensure the people oversee the exercise of power and that power is exercised in the open, we will work to confine the exercise of power within an institutional cage, reinforce constraints and oversight over the exercise of power, and use institutional means to provide a check on power, to administer affairs, and to manage personnel. We will clearly define the responsibilities and powers of officials, establish well-designed procedures and systems for accountability, and strengthen audits on the economic responsibilities of officials. We will improve checks on government powers and strengthen supervision and auditing- based oversight of departments with administrative powers.
5 To be strict with oneself in practicing self-cultivation, using power, and exercising self-discipline; and to be honest in one’s thinking, one’s work, and one’s behavior.
COORDINATED ECONOMIC AND DEFENSE DEVELOPMENT
We will stress both development and national security, strive to build both a prosperous country and a strong military, and move forward with the integrated military-civilian development strategy to bring about deep and highly efficient integration of the development of the military and civilian sectors across multiple fields and for all factors, and to achieve comprehensive progress in the modernization of defense and the armed forces.
Chapter 77 Pursue Comprehensive Development of Defense and the Armed Forces
In moving toward the Party’s goal of building strong armed forces under the new conditions, we will implement the strategy for the military under the new conditions and the reform strategy for strengthening the armed forces, and ensure that the military becomes more revolutionary, modern, and well-structured in every respect. We will strengthen Party building as well as political development in the armed forces, put into practice the guiding principles from the military’s meeting on political work held in Gutian, Fujian, and train a new generation of revolutionary officers and soldiers who are dedicated, competent, courageous, and have a strong moral character. We will step up efforts to govern the armed forces in accordance with the law and strict discipline, and accelerate legislative work related to the military, so as to put in place a system of military laws and regulations that are compatible with current circumstances and tasks and with the new leadership and command systems. We will strengthen combat preparedness in all areas for all situations, ensure that military endeavors are guided by the needs of combat situations, improve the strategic arrangement of the military, and ensure active management and planning in major security fields. We will develop new combat capabilities, strengthen the development of defense-related science and technology, equipment, and modern logistics, carry out combat training, and strengthen network information system-based joint combat capabilities of the military.
We will basically complete the reform objectives for defense and the armed forces, basically accomplish military mechanization, and make major strides in the adoption of information technology in the military, thereby building Chinese-style modern armed forces that are capable of successfully engaging in information technology-based warfare and effectively accomplishing their missions. We will strengthen international military-related exchange and cooperation and take an active role in international peacekeeping missions.
Chapter 78 Integrate Military and Civilian Development
We will ensure that economic development meets the needs of defense and that civilian needs are given due consideration in national defense development. We will improve systems and mechanisms for integrating military and civilian development as well as the systems concerning organizational management, work, and policy. We will establish a national leading body for integrating military and civilian development and similar bodies for provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government. We will advance legislation related to the integration of military and civilian development. We will ensure a better allocation and appropriate sharing of resources between the military and localities so that both peacetime and wartime needs can be met; encourage flow of factors such as technology, personnel, capital, and information between the economic and defense sectors; and strengthen coordinated development between the military and localities in the areas of infrastructure, industries, science, technology, education, and public services. We will explore the establishment of a mechanism for funding integrated military-civilian development projects. We will deepen institutional reform of defense-related science and technology industries, put in place an initiative to strengthen the foundations of these industries, and establish mechanisms for achieving collaborative innovation in defense-related science and technology. We will reform systems and mechanisms concerning defense-related research, production, and weapons and equipment procurement, move faster in opening military industries to competition and promoting the application of defense-related scientific and technological advances, and guide private businesses with a competitive advantage in entering the fields of research and development, production, and maintenance of military products. We will accelerate the development of standards that apply to both the military and civilian sectors. We will implement integrated military- civilian development projects, including ocean, space, and cyberspace projects and measures, the development of innovation demonstration zones for military-civilian integration, and the strengthening of coordination between the military and civilian sectors in the sharing of advanced technologies, industries, products, and infrastructure. We will strengthen infrastructure for border and coastal defense.
We will deepen defense mobilization reform and improve defense mobilization institutions and mechanisms. We will work to use patriotism as a pivot for teaching people about defense so as to help raise awareness of the need for strong defense. We will strengthen our reserve forces, give high priority to the mobilization of forces for maritime operations, and improve capabilities for organization and mobilization, rapid response, and logistics to strengthen the capacity of the armed forces to win wars and serve the country’s interests. We will improve the modern Armed Police Force. We will strengthen the development and maintenance of civil air defense works. We will improve the organization of and leadership over management and support work for decommissioned military personnel by improving service systems, policies, and institutions. We will consolidate unity between the government and the armed forces and between the people and the armed forces. We will ensure that the Party, the government, the military, the police, and the people work together to strengthen border security. In order to improve our overall border control capabilities and ensure security and stability in border areas, we will use political and diplomatic means to ensure peace along our borders, bolster development and living standards in border areas, strengthen border security through military development, and adopt science and technology in the field of border control. We will work to ensure that the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps strengthens its overall capabilities and self-development capacity, increases the pace of its development southward and better fulfills its role of maintaining stability and defending our borders.
PART XX IMPLEMENTATION
In order to guarantee effective implementation of the 13th Five-Year Plan, we will, under the leadership of the CPC, ensure that governments at all levels better perform their duties and to the greatest possible extent stimulate the vitality and creativity of different types of participants, so that the entire Party and the people of China work together in finishing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects.
Chapter 79 Make Use of the Party’s Role as the Core Leadership
We will see that the Party exercises overall leadership and coordinates all aspects of work and that Party committees and leading Party members’ groups at all levels serve as the core leadership and exercise more effective leadership so as to provide a firm guarantee for the realization of this plan. We will uphold the principle of the Party exercising proper self- supervision and practicing strict self-governance, apply a spirit of reform and innovation in fully moving ahead with the new major Party building project, maintain and develop the advanced nature and purity of the Party, improve its governance capacity, and ensure that the Party always remains the strong core of leadership for socialism with Chinese characteristics. We will strengthen the development of leading bodies and officials and improve performance assessment systems and reward and punishment mechanisms in order to mobilize the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of officials at all levels for their work. We will strengthen as a whole the functions of primary-level Party organizations, and give play to the leading role of these organizations and the exemplary role of Party members in order to lead the general public more effectively in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.
We will attach importance to giving impetus to the role of trade unions, the organizations of the Chinese Communist Youth League, women’s federations, and other people’s organizations, consolidate and develop the broadest possible patriotic united front, fully implement the Party’s policies on intellectuals, ethnic groups, religion, and work related to overseas Chinese, give full play to the roles of other political parties, chambers of commerce, and public figures without party affiliation, work to achieve the greatest possible popular consensus and combination of energies throughout society, promote reform and development, and safeguard social harmony and stability.
Chapter 80 Ensure that Everyone Works Together on Implementation
We will clearly define government responsibilities, ensure policies are well formulated and public resources are well allocated, and mobilize the energies of the whole society, so that everyone works together to promote the successful implementation of this plan.
Coordinated Management of Planning
We will strengthen overall management and coordination, creating a development planning system headed by the plan for economic and social development, and supported by subject-specific, regional, local, and annual plans. Relevant departments under the State Council shall organize the formulation of a set of national subject-specific plans—particularly key subject-specific plans—which set out in detail the implementation of the main tasks and targets of this plan. Local governments should, in their development plans, ensure that their development strategies, main targets, key tasks, and major projects are in coordination with those defined in the national plans and implement the unified arrangements provided for in these plans. We will work faster to see the promulgation of the Law on Development Plans.
Section 2 Mechanisms for Implementation
All local governments and government departments must work hard to organize, coordinate, and guide the implementation of this plan. We will carry out dynamic monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of this plan, use the results produced as an important basis for improving government work and measuring performance, and report the implementation of this plan to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress in accordance with the law and willingly accept its oversight. Responsibility and requirements regarding progress must be made clear in order to ensure that the obligatory targets, projects, initiatives, policies, and reform measures specified in this plan are all carried out as scheduled. Approval procedures related to the projects and initiatives included in this plan will be streamlined and priority will be given to them in site selection, land availability, and funding arrangements. We will ensure that auditing offices play a role in overseeing implementation. We will follow closely any changes and risks involved, remain aware of the bottom line, and prepare ourselves to respond to difficulties and complexities. When it is necessary to adjust this plan, any proposed adjustments shall be put forward by the State Council and reported to the NPC Standing Committee for approval.
Section 3 Financial Support
We will strengthen coordination between budgeting and the implementation of this plan, and having clearly defined the spending responsibilities of each level of government, we will ensure that budgeting at each level supports implementation. Medium-term fiscal plans and annual budgets should, based on both the tasks and targets defined in this plan and a government’s own financial strength, contain well- designed spending scales and structures. We will work faster on government investment legislation.
Section 4 Mobilization of Enthusiasm
The anticipatory targets and the tasks for industrial development and structural adjustment defined in this plan will be left mainly to market participants. We will work to inspire within every Chinese person a sense of contribution to the implementation of this plan and to their country’s development, stimulate the initiative, enthusiasm, and creativity of governments at all levels and of all sectors of society, respect the initiative of community-level organizations, and bring together the strength and wisdom of the people so that everyone contributes dynamically to the implementation of this plan and shares in the results thereof.
The prospects for fulfilling the development goals for the period covered by the 13th Five-Year Plan are promising, yet many formidable tasks lie ahead. The Party and the Chinese people should rally more closely around the CPC Central Committee headed by General Secretary Xi Jinping, hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, remain committed to progressing along the path of Chinese socialism, emancipate their minds, seek truth from facts, keep in step with the times, carry out reform, make innovations, and be of one heart and one mind in working to bring a successful conclusion to this decisive stage in finishing building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.